Posts Tagged ‘al-Banna’

Twisted CNN calls Muslim Brotherhood’s Abol Fotoh: an Islamist Moderate, his radicalism “hawkish”

May 24, 2012

Twisted CNN calls Muslim Brotherhood’s Abol Fotoh: an “Islamist moderate,” and his radicalism – “hawkish”.. Paul Cruickshank also glorifies Turkey’s Erdogan as some kind of a “model,” in the M.E.

“Abol Fotoh, Egypt’s next president?” –
By Paul Cruickshank, CNN, May 23, 2012

Oh well. Call any (anti infidel) jihadist, from now on, a “hawkish.” Suits well the creeping submission to Islamization trend. Huh?

So, the rise in anti-Copt persecution and calls of “Itbach al Yahud” –Kill all Jews, for Islam [Nov. 2011]– in the Muslim Brotherhood’s Christian Winter (Arab Spring) is a “moderate hawkish” thing, I guess.

What on earth is a “moderate islamist” anyway? Is there such a thing as a “moderate fascist”?
Have you all not read what the Muslim Brotherhood aspires to, an all out oppressive Islamic Caliphate (and they are “ready to go…”), a world ruled by radical Islam UBER ALLES?

And how is Turkey’s Erdogan a “model?”
Because he is of he Islamic party AKP, that pushes for more Islamization in “moderate’ Turkey, where anti-Christian sentiments rise?
Because he is tied to terror linked IHH, which its infamous “Flotilla” (2010) called for the Jews to ‘go back to Auchwitz?’

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The “moderate” fascist: ‘Muslim Brotherhood

January 31, 2011

The “moderate” fascist ‘Muslim Brotherhood’

• (a) The ‘core’ of today’s violent Islamic fundamentalism *.

• (b) Inspired by (European) Fascism. Racist *.

• (c) Hitler admirer * – Distributor of Mein Kampf in Arabic *.

• (d) Domination plan *.

• (e) Anti-Christian agitator in Egypt *.

• (f) The 9/11 attack – connection *.




Fundamentalism

In 1928, Hassan al-Banna founded the Muslim Brotherhood, a rigidly conservative and highly secretive Egyptian-based organization dedicated to resurrecting a Muslim empire. According to al-Banna, “It is the nature of Islam to dominate, not to be dominated, to impose its law on all nations and to extend its power to the entire planet.” Al-Banna also gave the group the motto it still uses today: “God is our purpose, the Prophet our leader, the Quran our constitution, jihad our way and dying for God our supreme objective.” The 9/11 Commission Report describes the Brotherhood’s influence on Osama bin Laden, stating that “Bin Laden relies heavily on the Egyptian writer Sayyid Qutb.” Qutb is one of the most influential, early Brotherhood theoreticians. The 9/11 Commission Report also describes the Muslim Brotherhood’s influence on Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman: “In speeches and writings, the sightless Rahman, often called the “Blind Sheikh,” preached the message of Sayyid Qutb’s Milestones, characterizing the United States as the oppressor of Muslims worldwide and asserting that it was their religious duty to fight against God’s enemies. An FBI informant learned of a plan to bomb major New York landmarks, including the Holland and Lincoln tunnels. Disrupting this “landmarks plot,” the FBI in June 1993 arrested Rahman and various confederates.”
http://counterterror.typepad.com/t he_counterterrorism_blog/2005/08/the_muslim_brot.html

How Egypt Molded Modern Radical Islam
Zvi Mazel

[Vol. 4, No. 18

16 February 2005]

[…]

When we speak of radical Islam, we are referring to a number of organizations that have engraved on their banner their intent to implement the rule of Islam within their country, and also to impose Islam on the world at large. At first this involved the Muslim Brotherhood, and later the jihadists separated off from the Brotherhood.

The basic ideology of political Islam – which was later adopted by all radical groups – finds its origin within Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood. The Brotherhood was founded in 1928 by Sheikh Hassan al-Banna in the city of Ismailia, on the banks of Suez Canal. It began as a kind of youth club where the Sheikh used to preach about the need to introduce moral and social reform into Egypt and the Arab world. Basically, it was a reaction to British occupation and the penetration of Western values into Arab society. The larger background was the collapse of the Ottoman Empire – the last Muslim empire – a few years before, and the abolition of the caliphate by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk in 1922, who sought to build a secular state on the ruins of the empire.

In the beginning, al-Banna’s brand of Islam seemed peaceful. However, this did not last long since at the core of his belief stood the universality of Islam and its inclusiveness: religion and state are one. This required restoration of the caliphate – the creation of an Islamic state comprised of all Muslim countries, ruled by an Islamic government, based on shari’a, the religious law of the Koran.

Another disturbing characteristic of the Muslim Brotherhood is its xenophobic nature, which translates into anti-Semitism and anti-Christian preaching and activity.

In Egypt the Muslim Brotherhood soon became involved in politics and turned to violence. During the 1940s it established a special apparatus – al-Tanzim al-Has – that initiated a campaign of terror against the government and assassinated a number of political personalities, among them two prime ministers. It soon became the most powerful extra-political force in Egypt, threatening the regime and wrecking havoc in the country.

This campaign of terror is considered one of the important factors that led to the Free Officers revolution in 1952, thus putting an end to the only liberal experience in Egypt’s history, initiated by the Wafd party. Later the Muslim Brotherhood became disappointed in Nasser’s socialist and secular policy; it turned against him and tried to kill him in 1954 but failed. Nasser’s reaction was brutal, declaring the organization illegal, arresting 60,000 people and putting them into camps. Its leaders were tried and condemned to death, thus ending the first chapter of radical Islam in Egypt.

http://jcpa.org/brief/brief004-18.htm

The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice Since 1967 – by Fouad Ajami – 1992 (page 135)
Fascism found an expression in the Young Egypt party, which was a parody of the fascist movement that swept Europe in the 1930s and 1940s; the Muslim Brotherhood thrived at a time of crisis and continues to survive at the present…
http://books.google.com/books?id=Qj-UEPal-cwC&pg=PA135&lpg=PA135

The Muslim Brotherhood: the enemy in its own words

Center for Security Policy | Jan 31, 2011

By Frank Gaffney, Jr.

As Egypt lurches towards the end of Hosni Mubarak’s regime, one way or another – by "an orderly transition to democratic rule" (as Hillary Clinton delicately puts it), through violent overthrow or simply through the demise of the ailing 82-year-old president – much is unclear. One thing that should not be is that the Muslim Brotherhood is our enemy, and whatever role it plays in Egypt’s future will be to our detriment.

Such clarity is readily available since the Brotherhood (MB or in Arabic, Ikhwan) has told us as much. Consider, for example, the mission statement for the MB found in one of its secret documents entitled "An Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the Group in North America":

The Ikhwan must understand that their work in America is a kind of grand Jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and ‘sabotaging’ its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God’s religion is made victorious over all other religions.

As a blue-ribbon group of national security experts convened by the Center for Security Policy, "Team B II" noted in their new best-seller Shariah: The Threat to America, the incompatability of the Ikhwan’s agenda with our interests has been evident from its inception:

The Muslim Brotherhood was founded in Egypt in 1928. Its express purpose was two-fold: (1) to implement shariah worldwide, and (2) to re-establish the global Islamic State (caliphate).  Therefore, al Qaeda and the MB have the same objectives.  They differ only in the timing and tactics involved in realizing them.

We also know how the Brotherhood plans to pull off our destruction.  Another MB document, this one undated, is called "Phases of the World Underground Movement Plan."  It describes a five-installment program for achieving the triumph of shariah – together with a status report on the realization of several of the phases’ goals:

Phase One: Discreet and secret establishment of leadership.

Phase Two: Phase of gradual appearance on the public scene and exercising and utilizing various public activities. It [the MB] greatly succeeded in implementing this stage.  It also succeeded in achieving a great deal of its important goals, such as infiltrating various sectors of the Government.

Phase Three: Escalation phase, prior to conflict and confrontation with the rulers, through utilizing mass media.  Currently in progress.

Phase Four: Open public confrontation with the Government through exercising the political pressure approach.  It is aggressively implementing the above-mentioned approach. Training on the use of weapons domestically and overseas in anticipation of zero-hour.  It has noticeable activities in this regard.

Phase Five: Seizing power to establish their Islamic Nation under which all parties and Islamic groups are united.

If any further evidence were needed of the threat posed by the Muslim Brotherhood, consider the comments on October 6, 2010 by Mohamed Badie, the Ikwan’s virulent promoter of shariah who was installed as its leader ("Supreme Guide") last year.  According to a translation provided by the indispensable Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), Badie declared: 

[Today, the United States] is withdrawing from Iraq, defeated and wounded, and it is on the verge of withdrawing from Afghanistan. [All] its warplanes, missiles and modern military technology were defeated by the will of the peoples, as long as [these peoples] insisted on resistance. Its wealth will not avail it once Allah has had his say, as happened with [powerful] nations in the past.  The U.S. is now experiencing the beginning of its end, and is heading towards its demise.

Barry Rubin, one of the most astute observers of the Middle East, warned within days that this speech represented a "declaration of war" by the Brotherhood, with it "adopting a view almost identical to al Qaeda’s" but coming from "a group with 100 times more activists than al Qaeda."

At first blush, it seems incredible that the sort of clarity about the Brotherhood’s intentions that the foregoing provide seems to be eluding many in official Washington and the policy elite.  On closer inspection, however, the muddle-headedness that has many describing the Ikhwan as "non-violent," "democratic" and desirable candidates for a coalition to replace Mubarak’s dictatorship is, to use an old Soviet expression, "no accident, comrade."

In fact, the aforementioned MB "Explanatory Memorandum" provides a list of "Our Organizations and the Organizations of Our Friends" that includes virtually every prominent Muslim-American organization in business at that time.  What is incredible, therefore, is that many of these same Muslim Brotherhood fronts are used by the U.S. government for "outreach" to the Muslim community and policy advice.  The nation’s top intelligence official, James Clapper, has actually characterized the resulting "dialogue with the Muslim community" as "a source of advice, counsel, and wisdom."

As a result, one other thing should be frighteningly clear:  We are having our policies towards Egypt’s succession – and the tsunami it is accelerating elsewhere in the region influenced, shaped and probably subverted by the Muslim Brotherhood’s American operatives.  If we let our enemies call the shots, there is no doubt who will wind up taking the bullet.
http://www.centerforsecuritypolicy.org/p18634.xml

Danger: Tariq Ramadan is coming to the US For starters, he is the grandson of Hassan Al Banna, the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, an Islamist terrorist organization born in Egypt in 1928…
http://www.americanthinker.com/articles.php? article_id=3523

The Muslim Brotherhood “Project” by …Since its formation, the Muslim Brotherhood has advocated the use of terrorism as a means of advancing its agenda of global Islamic domination. …
http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle. asp ?ID=22415

BBC NEWS | Middle East | Egyptian Brethren appear in court Senior Muslim brotherhood figure Khayrat al-Shatir … Defendants pleaded not guilty to charges including terrorism and money laundering and the trial was …
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/6718001.stm

BBC NEWS | World | Middle East | Analysis: THE ROOTS OF JIHAD IN EGYPT:
The origins of Bin Laden’s concept of jihad can be traced back to two early 20th century figures, who started powerful Islamic revivalist movements in response to colonialism and its aftermath.
Pakistan and Egypt – both Muslim countries with a strong intellectual tradition – produced the movements and ideology that would transform the concept of jihad in the modern world.
In Egypt, Hassan al-Banna’s Muslim Brotherhood and in Pakistan, Syed Abul Ala Maududi’s Jamaat Islami sought to restore the Islamic ideal of the union of religion and state.
They blamed the western idea of the separation of religion and politics for the decline of Muslim societies.
This, they believed, could only be corrected through a return to Islam in its traditional form, in which society was governed by a strict code of Islamic law.
Al-Banna and Maudoudi breathed new life into the concept of jihad as a holy war to end the foreign occupation of Muslim lands.

WIDE ACCEPTANCE:

In the 1950s Sayed Qutb, a prominent member of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood, took the arguments of al-Banna and Maududi a stage further.
For Qutb, all non-Muslims were infidels – even the so-called “people of the book”, the Christians and Jews – and he predicted an eventual clash of civilisations between Islam and the west.
Qutb was executed by Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1966.
According to Dr Azzam Tamimi, director of the Institute of Islamic Political Thought in London, Qutb’s writings in response to Nasser’s persecution of the Muslim Brotherhood, “acquired wide acceptance throughout the Arab world, especially after his execution and more so following the defeat of the Arabs in the 1967 war with Israel”.
Qutb and Maududi inspired a whole generation of Islamists, including Ayatollah Khomeini, who developed a Persian version of their works in the 1970s.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/middle_east/1603 178.stm

Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi: ‘There is No Dialogue between Us and the Jews Except by the Sword and the Rifle’

[July 27, 2004 Special Dispatch No.753]

http://www.memri.org/report/en/0/0/0/0/0/0/1181.htm

Pakistan Christian Post

MAHATHIR MOHAMAD AND MUSLIM ANTI-SEMITISM. ISIC BRIEFING. PCP REPORT.
[…]
Sayyid Qutb (1906-1966), the Egyptian ideologue of modern Islamism and a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, was one of the first to combine the two strands. His writings have been read by millions of Muslims around the world and have been a major influence in the development of contemporary Muslim anti-Semitism. Qutb used racist stereotypes and forgeries of Western anti-Semitism such as the “Protocols of the Elders of Zion” (translated into Arabic and widely distributed in the Muslim world). As a result, Islamism today sees itself involved in a cosmic struggle against “the Jews” which has to fought to the bitter end: “Therefore the struggle between Islam and the Jews continues in force and will continue, because the Jews will be satisfied only with the destruction of this religion (Islam).” For Qutb, modern-day Jews are identical to their forefathers at the time of Muhammad, who “confronted Islam with Enmity from the moment that the Islamic state was established in Medina. They plotted against the Muslim Community from the first day it became a Community.” [9] Since then, says Qutb, all Jews have always been wicked enemies of Islam, and contemporary
[…]
Following Qutb, the Muslim Brotherhood and other Islamist movements came to identify all Jews as inherently and genetically evil, disregarding any distinctions between different types of Jews: Jews are evil in whatever guise they appear.

Khomeini, leader of the Iranian Revolution and Supreme Guardian of the Islamic Republic of Iran until his death in1989, also had anti-Semitic attitudes and did his best to spread them around the Shi’a world: “Since its inception, Islam was afflicted with the Jews when they started their counter-activity by distorting the reputation of Islam, by assaulting it and by slandering it. This has continued to our present day.”
http://www.pakistanchristianpost.com/headlinenewsd.php?hnewsid=204

BBC NEWS | Europe | Russia names ‘terrorist’ groups Russia names 17 groups it regards as “terrorist organisations”, … The list also includes: the Muslim Brotherhood…
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5223458.stm

Antisemitism: the longest hatred Robert S. Wistrich – 1994 – 341 pages – [Page 226]
…Brotherhood advocated a war of Arabism and Jihad against the British and the Jews.
http://books.google.com/books?id=brotherhood&hl=en

Muslim Brotherhood (1) — ADL Terrorist Symbol Database, Terrorist groups use symbols that express their goals and violent ideologies. By examining the distinct symbols used by terrorists…
http://www.adl.org/terrorism/symbols/muslim_broth erhood_ 1.asp

The Muslim Brotherhood’s Conquest of Europe – Middle East Quarterly. the Muslim Brotherhood’s ultimate goal may not be simply “to help Muslims be the best citizens they can be,” but rather to extend Islamic law throughout Europe and the United States.
http://www.meforum.org/article/687

In 1928, an Islamic scholar named Hassan Al Banna founded an organization in Egypt called the Muslim Brotherhood. Born out of the extreme Muslim right wing’s desire to counter the ideology of modernization, the Brotherhood’s platform included a strict interpretation of the Koran that glorified suicidal violence to rid the world of Judaism. Along with Al Banna, the grand Mufti of Jerusalem Haj-al Amin Al-Husseini was also an enormously influencial Muslim leader of the time. Together, the two created a powerful and popular Islamist party by classically appealing to fundamentalist Islamic principals while blaming the world’s problems on the Jews.
http://www.jewishtribune.ca/TribuneV2/content/view/551/5/

Contemporary Islamist Ideology Authorizing Genocidal Murder
January 27, 2004
[…]
Contemporary Islamism, however, holds that Islam is now under attack, and therefore Jihad is now a war of defense, and as such has become not only a collective duty but an individual duty without restrictions or limitations. That is, to the Islamists, Jihad is a total, all-encompassing duty to be carried out by all Muslims men and women, young and old. All infidels, without exception, are to be fought and annihilated, and no weapons or types of warfare are barred. Furthermore, according to them, current Muslim rulers allied with the West are considered apostates and infidels.
One major ideological influence in Islamist thought was Sayyid Qutb. Qutb, an Egyptian, was the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood movement. He was convicted of treason for plotting to assassinate Egyptian president Gamal Abd Al-Nasser and was executed in 1966. He wrote extensively on a wide range of Islamic issues. According to Qutb, “There are two parties in all the world: the Party of Allah and the Party of Satan the Party of Allah which stands under the banner of Allah and bears his insignia, and the Party of Satan, which includes every community, group, race, and individual that does not stand under the banner of Allah.”
http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=subjects&Area=jihad&ID=SR2504


Hamas, Gaza and Muslim Brotherhood’s project…
Initially Hamas claimed to be involved with “charities”, and as it was opposed to Yasser Arafat’s PLO, it gained some support from Israel.
http://www.dailyestimate.com/article.asp? idcategory=35&idSub=185&idArticle=10400

Al-Qaeda & the Muslim Brotherhood: United by Strategy, Divided by …For the Muslim Brotherhood, Islam cannot be separated from governance or …. He clarifies his position by claiming that terrorism is not a criminal act, …
http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/artic le.php?articleid=2369939

On a website devoted to Ramadhan, the Muslim Brotherhood posted a series of articles by Dr. Ahmad ‘Abd Al-Khaleq about Al-Walaa Wa’l-Baraa, an Islamic doctrine which, in its fundamentalist interpretation, stipulates absolute allegiance to the community of Muslims and total rejection of non-Muslims and of Muslims who have strayed from the path of Islam.
In his articles, the writer argues that according to this principle, a Muslim can come closer to Allah by hating all non-Muslims – Christians, Jews, atheists, or polytheists – and by waging jihad against them in every possible manner.
http://www.memriiwmp.org/content/en/report.htm?report=2877

The Battle within Syria: An Interview with Muslim Brotherhood Leader Ali Bayanouni …
http://jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.ph p? articleid=2369769

The Muslim Brotherhood’s Propaganda Offensive Indeed, the U.S.- designated terrorist organization Hamas, which is the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood, took over the Palestinian Authority in …
http://www.americanthinker.com/2007/04/th e_muslim_brotherhoods_propag.html

Muslim Brotherhood – Egypt They start to perform terrorist attacks inside Egypt. ” December: The Muslim Brotherhood is banned by the authorities. .
http://i- cias.com/e.o/mus_br_egypt.htm

The British, Muslim Terrorism and September 11, This led to the assassination of Sadat, by members of Islamic Jihad, an offshoot group of the Muslim Brotherhood, on October 6, 1981. …
http://www.redmoonrising.com/Ikhwan/BritIslam.htm

The Muslim Brotherhood, also called Muslim Brethren (… jamiat al-Ikhwan al-muslimun, literally Society of Muslim Brothers) is an Islamic organization with a political approach to Islam. It was founded in 1928 by Hassan al Banna in Egypt after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire.
Ideology:

The Muslim Brotherhood opposes secular tendencies of Islamic nations and wants return to the precepts of the Qur’an, and rejection of Western influences. They also reject extreme Sufism. They organize events from prayer meetings to sport clubs for socializing.
The organization’s motto is as follows: “Allah is our objective. The Prophet is our leader. Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope”.
An important aspect of the Muslim Brotherhood ideology is the sanctioning of Jihad such as the 2004 fatwa issued by Sheikh Yousef Al-Qaradhawi making it a religious obligation of Muslims to abduct and kill U.S. citizens in Iraq.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/muslimbrotherhood.html

Family Security Matters, The Muslim Brotherhood’s Long- Standing War On The West.
The Muslim Brotherhood, which from 1948 until the 1970s engaged in assassinations and terrorism in Egypt, has indoctrinated many who went on to commit acts of terror.
http://www.familysecuritymatters.org/terrorism.php? id=1040982

The muslim brotherhood in france Increasingly, the Muslim Brotherhood is making France their ….. Islam in France, International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, May 10, 2004
http://www.inthenationalintere st.com/Articles/September2005Feder.html

The Koran: Suicide playbook …
The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt and Syria, which according to Safa has helped the Palestinians against the Israelis, has this as its slogan:
“The Koran is our constitution, the prophet is our guide; Death for the glory of Allah is our greatest ambition.”
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=27149

A Short Critique of Islamic Fundamentalism Around the late 1920s the Moslem Brotherhood was formed by Arabist thinkers such as Hassan al-Banna…
http://www.scribd.com/doc/485570/A-Short-Critique-of-Islamic-Fundamentalism

“Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11,” Matthias Kֳ¼ntzel, Telos Press Publishing, 2007, (ISBN 0914386360, 9780914386360, 180 pages), pp. 20-24


Paramilitary rallies by the pro-fascist Young Egypt movement founded in 1933, the Young Men’s Muslim Association (YMMA) and the Muslim Brotherhood increasingly dominant the street-scene, announcing…


Anti-Jewish Jihad


In October 1933, when the Jewish-led anti-German boycott movement was still going strong, the Cairo Nazi group discussed the reasons for the failure of their anti-Jewish campaign to date. How could “the broad masses” be awakened to an understanding of the “Jewish threat?” In their report to the Foreign Office in Berlin they drew the conclusion that the value of publicity campaigns “for the creation of an anti- Jewish mood among the Arab population is relatively small” and that “we must therefore focus far more on the point where real conflicts of interest between Arabs and Jews exist: Palestine. The conflict between Arabs and Jews there must be transplanted to Egypt.”..


p. 21
In April 1936 the Mufti called for an Arab general strike… “Arab revolt of 1936-39.”


This strike gave the Muslim Brothers the green light to launch their first fanatical solidarity campaign, in which the idea of jihad was linked to the clashes in Palestine. Only now did the Brotherhood become a mass organization, growing between 1936 and 1938 from 800 to 200,000 members.


In May 1936 the Muslim Brothers called for a boycott of the Business of Egyptian Jews. The Central Comittee for Aid to Palestine established by Al-Banna developed into the Brotherhood’s stronghold and the centre of its new mission. Pro-Palestinian fund-raising and anti-Jewish boycott campaigns, leafleting and demonstrations were now organized. In mosques, schools and workplaces the Brotherhood worked out the believers with the legend that the Jews and British wished to destroy the holy places of Jerusalem and tear up the Koran
and trample it underfoot. Yet initially these activities encountered strong opposition precisely among the Egyptian religious establisment…
met with a lot of resistance on the part of the mosque imams, who tried to stop them physically or have (p. 22) them taken to the police station… the Al-Azhar mosque-university, whose rector, Mustafa al-Maragi, forbade his Palestinian students from indulging in any anti-Jewish …


p. 23
The Muslim Brothers’ campaign struck a different note. “On violent student demonstrations in Cairo, Alexandria and Tanta in April and May 1938 calls such as “down with the Jews”, “Jews out of Egypt and Palestine” rang out…… Leaflets reiterated calls for a boycott of Jewish shops and business.” At the same time its newspaper, al-Nadhir, ran a regular column with the title “the threat of the Jews in Egypt” in which the names and addresses of Jewish business propritetors and the owners of allegedly Jewish newspapers all over the world were published and all evil – from Communism to brothels – was attributed to the “Jewish threat.”


An Appeal was made to young Egyptians to wear and consume only Islamic products and to prepare themselves in all parts of Egypt for jihad in defence of the Al-Aqsa mosque. Al-Nadhir called on children to give up their presents “for Palestine,” while their mothers were to sacrifice their very selves. “I shall carry my life in my own hands and offer it as a sacrifice on the altar in defence of the Holy Place in order to win the honour of jihad” boasted one female fanatic in the paper. In 1939 the first bombs were placed in a Cairo synagogue and Jewish private homes.


These anti-Jewish excesses were by then supported by other Islamist organizations such as the Young Men’s Muslims Association (YMMA)..


p. 24
This burgeoning Islamist movement was subsidized with German funds. As Brynjar Lia recounts in his monograph on the Muslim Brotherhood…
http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PA20



Inspired by Fascism


How Islam Plans to Change the World – Page 25 – William Wagner – (Kregel Publications) 2004 (ISBN 0825439655) – 287 pages – Preview
THE NEW DAWN FOR ISLAM (1945-1969)
A little-known fact today is that the Muslim Brotherhood grew in Egypt in the 1920s as an imitation of European fascism, which it self was a revolt against modernity. In Italy and Germany they were known by their black or brown shirts. In Egypt they had green shirts, which symbolized the Muslim Brotherhood. Fascism failed in Europe but survived in Egypt and spread to other parts of the Islamic world. The influence of this radical movement is still very powerful in Egypt. It became fiercely anti-Western in the 1940s and 1950s under the direction of Sayd Qutb, an Egyptian fundamentalist. This movement was credited with many assassinations, including that of Anwar Sadat.
http://books.google.com/books?id=EvyP0zY1-tsC&pg=PA25


The Swastika and the Crescent | Southern Poverty Law Center



Intelligence Report, Spring 2002, Issue Number: 105



By Martin A. Lee



[…]

Back to the Beginning



The roots of the Muslim Brotherhood — and, in many ways, the Nazi-Muslim axis — go back to the organization’s formation in Egypt in 1928.



Marking the start of modern political Islam, or what is often referred to as “Islamic fundamentalism,” the Brotherhood from the outset envisioned a time when an Islamic state would prevail in Egypt and other Arab countries, where the organization quickly established local branches.



The growth of the Muslim Brotherhood coincided with the rise of fascist movements in Europe — a parallel noted by Muhammad Sa’id al-‘Ashmawy, former chief justice of Egypt’s High Criminal Court.



Al-‘Ashmawy decried “the perversion of Islam” and “the fascistic ideology” that infuses the world view of the Brothers, “their total (if not totalitarian) way of life … [and] their fantastical reading of the Koran.”




Youssef Nada, current board chairman of Al Taqwa, had joined the armed branch of the Muslim Brotherhood as a young man in Egypt during World War II. Nada and several of his cohorts in the Sunni Muslim fraternity were recruited by German military intelligence, which sought to undermine British colonial rule in the land of the sphinx.



Hassan al-Banna, the Egyptian schoolteacher who founded the Muslim Brotherhood, also collaborated with spies of the Third Reich.



Advocating a pan-Islamic insurgency in British-controlled Palestine, the Brotherhood proclaimed their support for the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin Al-Husseini, in the late 1930s.



The Grand Mufti, the preeminent religious figure among Palestinian Muslims, was the most notable Arab leader to seek an alliance with Nazi Germany, which was eager to extend its influence in the Middle East.



Although he loathed Arabs (he once described them as “lacquered half-apes who ought to be whipped”), Hitler understood that he and the Mufti shared the same rivals — the British, the Jews and the Communists.



Indicative of the old Arab adage, “The enemy of my enemy is my friend,” they met in Berlin, where the Mufti lived in exile during the war.



The Mufti agreed to help organize a special Muslim division of the Waffen SS. Powerful radio transmitters were put at the Mufti’s disposal so that his pro-Axis propaganda could be heard throughout the Arab world…

http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2002/spring/the-swastika-and-the-crescent?page=0,1


The Muslim Brotherhood, Nazis and Al-Qaeda 4 Oct 2004 …



Here’s how you can find all of the missing secrets about the Muslim Brotherhood — and you can do this, too. I said, “Bob, go to your computer and type in two words into the search part. Type the word “Banna,” B-a-n-n-a. He said, “Yeah.” Type in “Nazi.” Bob typed the two words in, and out came 30 to 40 articles from around the world. He read them and called me back and said, “Oh my gosh, what have we done?”

What I’m doing today is doing what I’m doing now: I’m educating a new generation in the CIA that the Muslim Brotherhood was a fascist organization that was hired by Western intelligence that evolved over time into what we today know as al-Qaeda.

Here’s how the story began. In the 1920’s there was a young Egyptian named al Bana. And al Bana formed this nationalist group called the Muslim Brotherhood. Al Bana was a devout admirer of Adolph Hitler and wrote to him frequently. So persistent was he in his admiration of the new Nazi Party that in the 1930’s, al-Bana and the Muslim Brotherhood became a secret arm of Nazi intelligence.

The Arab Nazis had much in common with the new Nazi doctrines. They hated Jews; they hated democracy; and they hated the Western culture. It became the official policy of the Third Reich to secretly develop the Muslim Brotherhood as the fifth Parliament, an army inside Egypt.

When war broke out, the Muslim Brotherhood promised in writing that they would rise up and help General Rommell and make sure that no English or American soldier was left alive in Cairo or Alexandria.



The Muslim Brotherhood began to expand in scope and influence during World War II. They even had a Palestinian section headed by the grand Mufti of Jerusalem, one of the great bigots of all time. Here, too, was a man — The grand Mufti of Jerusalem was the Muslim Brotherhood representative for Palestine. These were undoubtedly Arab Nazis. The Grand Mufti, for example, went to Germany during the war and helped recruit an international SS division of Arab Nazis. They based it in Croatia and called it the “Handjar” Muslim Division, but it was to become the core of Hitler’s new army of Arab fascists that would conquer the Arab peninsula from then on to Africa — grand dreams.

http://archive.frontpagemag.com/articles/readarticle.asp?ID=15344

Muslim Brothers (MB) Manifesto, Is a Fascist, Supremacist, Nazi and exclusionist Ideology

Last Updated Sunday, 22 November 2009

http://www.unitedcopts.org/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=2092

Asia Times Online :: Islamism Facsism Terrorism
PART 1
Links between neo-Nazis and the radical ideology of Islamism have surfaced since the terrorism of September 11, 2001 – an event that was celebrated by both groups. But fascism and Islamism have an 80-year history of collaboration based on shared ideas, practices and perceived common enemies.

PART 2
Substitute religious for racial purity, and most ideological and organizational precepts of Nazism are essentially identical to the later precepts of the Muslim Brotherhood. Marc Erikson traces the Brotherhood’s collaboration with fascism from the present-day brains behind al-Qaeda to the era of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem during World War II.

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/others/islamism-fascism-terrorism.html

Islamic Terrorism’s Links To Nazi Fascism
5 Jul 2007 … “Islamism, or fascism with an Islamic face, was born with and of the Muslim Brotherhood. It proved (and improved) its fascist core …

http://www.aina.org/news/2007070595517.htm


Muslim Brotherhood & Nazism


Encyclopedia of modern worldwide extremists and extremist groups – Page 40 – Stephen E. Atkins – 2004 – 404 pages – Preview
The Muslim Brotherhood continued to grow during World War II, reaching a membership of nearly 500000 in 1945. Al-Banna was always vague about his political goals, but he expressed his admiration for Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler and …
http://books.google.com/books?id=b8k4rEPvq_8C&pg=PA40

The Muslim Brotherhood
Al-Banna was a devout admirer of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. During the 1930s, the Brotherhood became more political in nature and an officially …
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/muslimbrotherhood.html

Dec 17, 2008 … When World War II broke out, al-Banna worked to firm up his alliances with Hitler and Mussolini. He sent them letters and emissaries, …
http://www.mideastweb.org/Middle-East-Encyclopedia/hassan_al-banna.htm


Yad Vashem studies: Volume 37, Part 1 – Page 125 – Yad ב¹¿a-shem, rashut ha-zikaron la-Shoֺ¼ah ב¹¿ela-gevurah – 2009 – Preview
In 1928, the cleric Hassan al-Banna had established the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. It formed the core cell of modern Islamic fundamentalism… The driving factor behind this upsurge was mobilization for the Arab uprising in Palestine, as passages of the Koran hostile to Jews were interwoven with antisemitic formulations of struggle from the Third Reich, and the hatred of the Jews was transformed into jihad, “holy war.” The consequence was boycott campaigns and violent demonstrations under the slogan, “Jews out of Egypt and Palestine!” In October 1938, a conference of Islamic parliamentarians “for the defense of Palestine” was held in Cairo; antisemitic tractates were distributed, including the Arabic versions of Hitler’s Mein Kampf and the Protocols of the Elders of Zion.
http://books.google.com/books?id=JcDXaeukt4sC&pg=PA125


Issues in Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: Selections From CQ Researcher, CQ Researcher, [Pine Forge Press] 2009 [ISBN 1412980372, 9781412980371] – Page 158
The Nazis funded the burgeoning growth of Muslim fundamentalism, helping the radical Muslim Brotherhood distribute Arabic translations of Mein Kampf, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=6HPB3DlB-m8C&pg=PA158


The World Turned Upside Down: The Global Battle Over God, Truth, and Power – Page 237, Melanie Phillips – 2010 – 280 pages – Preview
…During the war, the Muslim Brotherhood distributed Mein Kampf in Arabic throughout Palestine, along with German money and weapons to help the Arab revolt against Jewish immigration from Nazi-occupied Europe. Husseini also supported the Nazis via …
http://books.google.com/books?id=GJN7TZtT1UIC&pg=PA237


The Muslim Brotherhood, The Nazis and Al-Qa’ida, Al-Qa’ida is the product of an Arab fascist group that was set up in the 1920s, …. and we left this army of Arab fascists in the field of Afghanistan. …
http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/sociopolitica/esp_sociopol_muslimbrotherhood01.htm

Muslim Brotherhood’s Islamic-domination plan

Muslim Brotherhood’s papers detail plan to seize U.S. | News for …Sep 17, 2007 … Group’s takeover plot emerges in Holy Land case ….
the most provocative has turned out to be a handful of previously classified evidence detailing Islamist extremists’ ambitious plans for a U.S. takeover.
A knot of terrorism researchers say the memos and audiotapes, many translated from Arabic and containing detailed strategies by the international Islamist group the Muslim Brotherhood, are proof that extremists have long sought to replace the Constitution with Shariah, or Islamic law.
[…] The goal of the Palestinian Committee, which trial documents indicate existed in the late 1980s and early 1990s, was to raise money in the U.S. to fund Hamas.
This was to be accomplished by forming a complex network of seemingly benign Muslim organizations whose real job, according to the government, was to spread militant propaganda and raise money.
The Muslim Brotherhood created some American Muslim groups and sought influence in others, many of which are listed as unindicted co-conspirators in the Holy Land case.
On the list are several prominent groups, including the Islamic Society of North America, the North American Islamic Trust and the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR). All have protested their inclusion on the list.
http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/news/localnews/stories/091707dnmetbrotherhood.35ce2b6.html

Muslim Brotherhood Poised for Power in Egypt – HUMAN EVENTS 31 Jan 2011 …
The Muslim Brotherhood is also an international organization. According to a captured internal document made public during the trial of the Hamas-supporting Islamic charity, the Holy Land Foundation, in 2007, its goal in the United States is “eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and ‘sabotaging’ its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God’s religion is made victorious over all other religions.”

[…]
At this time in history, with Islamic fascist tyranny threatening to over take the Middle East, Obama’s actions could not have been more ill-conceived and irresponsible or more directly responsible for the Egyptian Revolution and the needless destruction or more contrary to the interests of America.

http://www.humanevents.com/article.php?id=41487

Anti-Christian



Human Rights Internet reporter: Volume 8, Human Rights Internet – 1982 – p. 244
Egypt’s nine million Christians, some 20 percent of the nation’s population, are in imminent danger of being cut off … who were former members of the Muslim Brotherhood. Since then the persecution of the Copts has continued unabated.
http://books.google.com/books?&id=TvUvAQAAIAAJ&dq=copts

Dateline Jerusalem – Page 53 – Zola Levitt – 2005 – 214 pages – Preview
Coptic acceptance of this subservient status should not, however, be attributed to a lack of courage. Copts represent only 10 percent of … The virulently anti-Christian and anti-Jewish Muslim Brotherhood was founded there in 1928,
http://books.google.com/books?id=9519CiuzSOIC&pg=PA53


The Muslim Brotherhood and the Copts

Written by Magdi Khalil

Friday, April 21, 2006



Many have recently wondered about the evident concern of the Copts over the Muslim Brotherhood’s victory of 88 seats in the last parliamentary elections in Egypt. Why, exactly, are the Copts so upset, and would they stand against democracy if it works in favor of the Muslim Brotherhood?



Actually, the Copts are not the only ones to have serious misgivings about this latest development in Egypt’s political life; women, liberals, civil society supporters, leftists, and other advocates of democracy share the same sentiment. The champions of civil society are haunted by the nightmarish vision of a religious government, and it goes without saying that the Copts, as a religious minority, are particularly concerned about the Muslim Brotherhood’s agenda with regard to the creation of an Islamic state and Islamic nationalism.



In response to these concerns, the Muslim Brotherhood claims that it does not seek to establish a religious state, but rather a “civil state with an Islamic framework” or an “Islamic democracy.” I am challenging to learn, however, if there is any person out there who can pinpoint the exact definition of those ambiguous terms, give accurate details as to what an Islamic democracy entails, or what it means to have a civil state with an Islamic framework.



Most importantly, the Muslim Brotherhood’s history, actions, website statements, and newspaper articles confirm the intent to establish a state that has a religious nature and not a civil one. To illustrate:



• Mustafa Mashour, the former supreme guide of the Muslim Brotherhood, was quoted as saying “Whoever stands against the Muslim Brotherhood is also standing against God and His Prophet.” The implication here is that Islam and the Muslim Brotherhood are on an equal standing or are one and the same. The same feeling is reflected in the statement made by Hassan Hanafi: “What is so terrifying about the Muslim Brotherhood? The Western media is ruining their image in the same pattern it has been ruining the image of Islam and Muslims.” (Al-Arabi, No. 989)



• Essam Al Erian: “The Muslim Brotherhood believes that a comprehensive reform will not have the power to inspire real public participation unless it is resting on an Islamic foundation… We seek to build an Islamic civilization under an umbrella of faith in God and in the after-life, a civilization that would re-establish man’s psychological balance and restore his lost soul.” (Al-Hayat, November 30, 2005). I wonder who told Mr. Erian that our souls are lost, and who can possibly determine the meaning of loss and restoration?



• The current supreme guide, Mohammed Mahdi Akef, responded to the civil society advocates’ request for a constitutional amendment which would provide for a civil framework for the state by saying: “This is a futile and foolish request, and we will say no more about it, except to call on the people to protect their own faith.” His deputy, Mohammed Habib, commented by saying, “This request crosses a line that shouldn’t even be touched, because just touching it can trigger a civil war in Egypt.”



• A spectacle that needs no comments: Members of Egypt’s Parliament from the Muslim Brotherhood standing in line to kiss the hand of the supreme guide!



• Mustafa Mashour’s declaration: “For now we accept the principle of party plurality, but when we will have an Islamic rule we will either accept or reject this principle” (in Refaat Al-Said’s Against Islamization). The clear reference to an “Islamic rule,” or in other words, a “religious state,” is proof enough that our fears are well founded.



• Mohammed Mahdi Akef’s statement: “The public opinion is ruled by Shari’a. We should not forget that the Egyptian Constitution states that ‘the Islamic law is the principal source of legislation’” (Akher Saa, July 20, 2005).



• According to Mohammed Habib, even the separation of powers should be guided and inspired by the rules of Islamic Shari’a (Asharq Al-Awsat, November 27, 2005).



• The Muslim Brotherhood’s main slogan is “Islam is the Solution,” a mysterious slogan that excludes “infidels” such as the Christians and the Jews. The Brotherhood’s flag pictures two swords and the Qur’an and a Qur’anic verse which states: “Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies of Allah and your enemies.” (Spoils of War Surah – El-Ghanaem: 60)



• Their proclaimed purpose is to “restore the Islamic Caliphate (Islamic political system and rule). Their former supreme guide, Mustafa Mashour, has frankly stated: “We will not give up our mission to restore the lost Islamic Caliphate.” (Asharq Al-Awsat, August 9, 2002)



• The professional syndicates in Egypt bear the mark of the Muslim Brotherhood’s intrusion. For example, the solemn Hippocratic Oath was replaced by a Muslim oath in the Physicians’ Syndicate; hard-earned Egyptian money is being donated to the “brothers” in Afghanistan, Bosnia, Chechnya and Kashmir; and the syndicates’ funds are wasted on Islamic projects that belong to the Muslim Brotherhood.



When it is so obvious that public affairs have been turned into “holy” affairs, and the debate revolves around religious credentials and how to best abide by Islam’s rule, it seems pointless to expect that their promised state would be a civil state.



When asked about the program of action for this alleged civil state, the Muslim Brotherhood usually refers to the reform initiative issued in March 2004 in the Journalists’ Syndicate, and which is posted on the Muslim Brotherhood’s website. A study of the initiative leads to the undeniable conclusion that this document is, in fact, a proposal for an Islamic state.



It plainly states: “Our mission is to implement a comprehensive reform in order to uphold God’s law which is good for both secular and religious affairs.” It goes on to state that “Our only hope, if we wish to achieve any type of progress, is to go back to our faith, and to apply the Shari’a,” clearly confirming “our mission is to build a Muslim individual, a Muslim family, a Muslim government, and an Islamic rule to lead other Islamic states.”



The document touches briefly on what we can expect if that mission is accomplished:



– Regarding the media: “The media will be cleansed of anything that disagrees with the decrees of Islam.”



– Regarding the economy: “We believe in an economic system that is derived from Islam… usury should be outlawed as a source of funding.”



– Regarding politics: “The state should have a democratic system that is compatible with Islam, and within Islamic boundaries.”



– Regarding the social system: “The zakah (alms) institutions should be in charge of the distribution of income.”



– Regarding education: “To increase the number of kuttab (a rudimentary religious school) and nurseries, and the focus of education should be on learning the Qur’an by heart.”



– Regarding women: “Women should only hold the kind of posts that would preserve their virtue.”



– Regarding culture: “Our culture has to be derived from Islamic sources.” This would also impact television: “Improper drama and offensive television shows should be banned.”



The notion of a civil state is nowhere to be found in the sole document offered by the Muslim Brotherhood.



I have yet to meet anyone who knows what Islamic democracy means. As Ragaa ben Salama says: “If we have no doubt that a Muslim can live within a democracy, and remain a practicing believer, can we say the same about democracy surviving an Islamic label? Democracy basically means the supremacy of the people, a rule by the people for the people, so can we call democrats those who opt for an Islamic state which, according to Rashid al-Ghanoushi, is ruled by the highest legislative authority issued by God, the Qur’an and Sunna (the Prophet’s traditions)?



How will we proceed in finding a middle ground between the Holy Texts and human rights principles, and do we have viable suggestions in that respect?



It seems that with that type of “democracy” we will only be trading one tyranny for another, to live under the rule of Shari’a is to experience the greatest level of tyranny, because every tiny detail in human life, whether public or private, is subject to the haram and halal (permissible and forbidden) rules (Middle East Transparent, December 21, 2004).



As we can see, the notion of a religious state is a scary one for all, particularly for the Copts, who have not, throughout the history of Islam, enjoyed equal treatment as full citizens while living under a religious Islamic state.



I have met Muslim Brotherhood leaders more than once in the course of television interviews, and it did not take me long to realize that we come from two different worlds and spoke different languages: our civil perspective versus their religious perspective. However, they have been strangely determined to force this delusion of a “common civil ground” on their audience by using a plethora of mysterious expressions and misleading theories. Needless to say, the “delusion” can only work until you discuss the details of their proposals, then their religious orientation will ultimately reveal itself.



The problem with the Muslim Brotherhood is that they are hard to pin down, with their elusive style, word play, taqiyya, contradictory statements, and double language. They are all-set to accommodate different clients: The West and Americans, the Copts, women, liberals, as well as Osama bin Laden and Ayman Al-Zawahiri. To this moment they refuse to condemn the writings of Said Kutb, the philosopher of terror and violence.



Meanwhile, the Copts have particular reasons to fear the Muslim Brotherhood:



First: The Muslim Brotherhood’s racist declarations against the Copts.



• A famous fatwa (a legal pronouncement in Islam) prohibited the construction of new churches in Egypt. The fatwa was published in Al-Dawaa magazine, which speaks for the Muslim Brotherhood, in December 1980, and was issued by Mohammed Al-Khatib who was, and still is, a member of the guidance council of the Muslim Brotherhood movement. Twenty-five years later, the Muslim Brotherhood still acknowledges the validity of this fatwa.



• Another outrageous fatwa issued by Mustafa Mashhour stated that: “Islamic law, Shari’a, is the principal point of reference (authority) for governance. Copts must pay the jizyah instead of joining the army, lest they ally themselves with the enemy, if that enemy happens to be a Christian country” (Al-Ahram Weekly 13 April 1997). A calculated change was later made by Mashhour, who still would not deny the validity of his statement. Recently, on 22 December 2005, Mohammed Akef used the same tactic to contain the angry responses to his statement about the holocaust being a “myth,” but he neither denied the statement nor offered an apology.



• In an interview with the newspaper Azzaman, Mohammed Habib said: “The Muslim Brotherhood rejects any constitution based on secular and civil laws, and as a consequence the Copts can not take on the form of a political entity in this country. When the movement will come to power, it will replace the current constitution with an Islamic one, according to which a non-Muslim will not be allowed to hold a senior post, whether in the state or the army, because this right should be exclusively granted to Muslims. If the Egyptians decide to elect a Copt for the presidential post, we will issue a protest against such an action, on the basis that this choice should be ours” (Azzaman, May 17, 2005).



On another occasion he stated that the Copts should submit to Islamic law like the rest of Egyptians” (Mona Al-Tahawi, Asharq Al-Awsat, August 18, 2005). Later, when it became obvious that his statements provoked an angry reaction, he wrote an article in Asharq Al-Awsat where he stated: “We consider the Copts as citizens who are entitled to the full rights of citizenship, and consequently they have the full right to hold all sorts of public positions except for the presidential post.” (Asharq Al-Awsat, November 27, 2005)



The danger here lies in the reasoning behind such statements: the presidential post is considered welaya kobra (major governance) and in this case a non-Muslim is not allowed to govern a Muslim, which completely shatters the basic notion of citizenship. It is a given that a non-Muslim Egyptian will have serious obstacles to be elected president. But, the problem is if an obstacle is based on a religious rule advocated by the Muslim Brotherhood.



While Habib seems to be adjusting his original statement, he is in fact joining his fellows in making a tactical change, given that this principle applies not only to the presidential post but to all senior official posts, as previously mentioned by another Islamist, Dr. Neemat Ahmed Fouad: “Those who are making a big issue out of the fact that there are no Christian governors in Egypt forget that the governor is ruling his governorate on behalf of the president, who is Egypt’s ruler…the same logic and same criteria are applicable” (Al-Ahram, August 4, 1992).



This explains Milad Hanna’s prediction: “The Muslim Brotherhood will resort to taqiyya (deceit). They will claim that they believe in citizenship, but I know that the principle of their religious ideology has more power than the intentions of its followers” (Asharq Al-Awsat, November 27, 2005).



• In an interview with Sameh Fawzi in 1996, Mamoun Al-Hudaibi answered the question about whether the Copts were considered citizens or dhimmi by replying that they were both. When pressed for a specific answer, he clearly states: “They are dhimmi” (Al-Hayat, November 30, 2005).



Second: While the Muslim Brotherhood’s statements and declarations inspire concern, what they have left unsaid is as much a source of concern as what they actually said.



In the reform document, their only one to date, there was not even an allusion to the issue of citizenship, no specific details about other issues, and much general talk. For instance, in talking about their vision, Mohammed Habib says: “To have open and strong relations with the Arab and Islamic regimes, and to achieve a high level of cooperation in the economic, cultural, information and defense fields” (Asharq Al-Awsat, November 27, 2005). He avoided mentioning Egypt’s international relations, and its relation with Israel. They have followed that same pattern in dealing–or rather in not dealing–with critical issues, intent on hiding pertinent political and moral details.



Third: The Muslim Brotherhood’s discourse bears a religious and superior tone, with constant references to the “other,” often in a belittling and hurtful manner. Their frequent use of terms such as infidels, crusades, the triumph of the Islamic nation, and the armies of Muslims is guaranteed to antagonize Christians.



The discourse can turn downright hostile, as Hassan Al-Banna was quoted to literally say: “it is necessary to kill ahl el-ketab (Christians and Jews), and God will give a double recompense for those who fight them.” Al-Banna also tackled the issues of employment for non-Muslims in a haughty tone: “It is alright to employ non-Muslims, but only when it is necessary, and in posts that do not deal with matters of public governance” (Messages of Hassan Al-Banna, The Legitimate Printing, 1990, p. 280 & 394 – Samir Morkos, Middle East Transparent, December 24, 2005).



At best, the Muslim Brotherhood resorts to vague conciliatory statements such as the famous quote which states: “They (Christians) have the same rights as we do and the same duties as we do.” Yet, there is no way to reconcile the theory of peaceful coexistence on the basis of equality and citizenship and the prospect of a religious majority imposing its rules and perspective on the minority–in that case, we are no longer talking about a citizenship status but about dhimmi status.”



Fourth: The Muslim Brotherhood and their allies insist that the Coptic population amounts to only 6% of Egypt’s total population, in spite of a recent official declaration by Osama Al-Baz that the Copts constitute 12.5% of Egypt’s population, and despite the fact that other organizations have estimated the number of Copts to be 15 millions, i.e., 20% of the population. Meanwhile, the Muslim Brotherhood claims that the Shi’a amount to 30% of the total population of Iraq, while it is a well-known fact that they constitute 50-60% of the population (Mona Al-Tahawi, Asharq Al-Awsat, 8 Aug 2005). This purposeful twisting of numbers and percentages is a strategy used by the Muslim Brotherhood to deny the rights of their opponents, and on this point, they are worse in deceit compared to the current Egyptian regime.



Finally: Egyptian liberals, advocates of democracy, and the national movement strive towards the achievement of “national integration” for all elements of society, but the Muslim Brotherhood has in mind for the Copts a sort of “religious assimilation,” and there is a large difference between the two. Islamization is the first enemy of national integration, it pushes for the religious assimilation of the Coptic minority through a gradual desertion of their faith, or at the very least through a loss of their cultural and religious identity as it melts into the majority’s Islamic culture.



Evidently, Hassan Al-Banna and his followers have managed to sabotage the good work of the national movement. The Muslim Brotherhood is constantly praising the Copts who have accepted the idea of religious assimilation such as Rafik Habib, who promotes this idea among the Copts; Gamal Asaad, a candidate who adopted the slogan “Islam is the Solution” in his parliamentary campaign; and Hani Labib, who accepted a membership in the labor party under the same slogan, and whose books bear prefaces written by Islamic fundamentalists Tarek el-Beshri and Selim el-Awa. According to the Muslim Brotherhood, those Copts represent a commended Coptic ideal.
[…]



About the Writer: Magdi Khalil is a political analyst, researcher, author, and executive editor of the Egyptian weekly Watani International. He is also a columnist for Asharq Al-Awsat newspaper, London, a free-lance writer for several Arabic language newspapers, and a frequent contributor to Middle East broadcast news TV. Mr. Khalil has also published three books and written numerous research papers on citizenship rights, civil society, and the situation of minorities in the Middle East…

http://web.archive.org/web/20060619095630/http://chronwatch.com/content/contentDisplay.asp?aid=20734


_______

‘Muslim Brotherhood’ & 911



911 ISLAMIC ATTACK & THE ‘MUSLIM BROTERHOOD’

 

 

Muhammad Atta


1990: Mohamed Atta Joins Muslim Brotherhood Linked Group
http://www.historycommons.org/entity.jsp?entity=mohamed_atta

 

1985
Atta studies architecture in the Engineering Faculty at Cairo University. According to his peers, he is an average student. In 1990, Atta joins the Engineers Syndicate, which is one of three professional associations controlled by the Muslim Brotherhood, although he later says that he was not a member of the Muslim Brotherhood
 http://www.abc.net.au/4corners/atta/maps/timeline.htm

 

Mohamed Atta – Debunk911myths Mohamed Atta was born in small village in Kafr el-Sheik in northern Egypt in 1968, … At that time, Muslim Brotherhood was influential at the university. …
http://www.debunk911myths.org/topics/Mohamed_Atta

 

While in engineering school, Atta came under the influence of the Muslim Brotherhood, a movement aimed at creating an Islamic state and curbing Western influence.
http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-27266999_ITM

 

who recruited 9/11 leader Mohamed Atta
Posted: December 10, 2006
1:00 am Eastern
ֲ© 2008 WorldNetDaily.com
WASHINGTON With suggestions the U.S. negotiate with Syria and Iran dominating the news, Joseph Farah’s G2 Bulletin reports Washington has already been talking quietly to a Syrian dissident group linked directly to the 9/11 hijackers and their sponsors in al-Qaida.
The group is the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood, known for its association with al-Qaida and allied with former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein….
Spanish investigators linked al-Qaida leader Imad Eddit Barakat Yarkas in Madrid with fellow Syrian Muslim Brotherhood member Mohammad Haydar Zammar in Hamburg.
Along with Barakat, Spanish authorities arrested five other al-Qaida members of Syrian descent. Yarkas and Zammar knew the Egyptian, Mohamed Atta, reputed leader of the 9-11 hijackers.
Investigators report that Zammar not only had created the Hamburg al-Qaida cell but recruited Atta as well.
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=53309

Khalid Shaikh Mohammed


 

Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Affiliation, 9-11 plotters. Affiliation, Muslim Brotherhood5. Full Given Name, Khalid Shaikh Mohammed. Nationality, Pakistani. Nationality, Kuwaiti …
http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/profiles/khalid_shaikh_mohammed.htm

 

The Biography Channel – Notorious Crime Profiles Khalid Sheikh …Khalid Sheikh Mohammed was raised in Kuwait and joined the Muslim Brotherhood at age 16.  …
http://www.biography.com/notorious/crimefiles.do?action=view&catName=Terrorrists&profileId=266103

 

Khalid Sheikh Mohammed: make me a martyr for 9/11 -[Jun 6, 2008] … He claims to have joined the Muslim Brotherhood at 16 and to have fallen …
http://news.scotsman.com/latestnews/-Khalid-Sheikh-Mohammed-make.4159045.jp

 

9/11 suspects ask to confess but postpone pleas

(AFP) – Dec 8, 2008


GUANTANAMO BAY, Cuba (AFP) — Self-proclaimed architect of the September 11 attacks Khalid Sheikh Mohammed and four co-defendants said Monday they would confess to terror charges that could bring the death penalty but postponed their guilty pleas.

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jybphMhWfVhYz9LGFzg_SXxleqgA

 

Score one for the Muslim Brotherhood.
SPECIAL REPORT: The Bush administration has decided that calling the enemy by his name is too risky, too politically incorrect, or oddly, somehow too laudatory…
The U.S. government seems to think that declaring such links don’t exist will make it so. Score one for the Muslim Brotherhood.
As Walid Phares describes in his post-9/11 three-book series on the meaning…
What motivates the international Islamic jihad movement is a literal textual interpretation of doctrinal Islam as laid out in the Koran, hadith, and Sunna plus centuries of Islamic scholarship and consensus on the concept of just war. Within this construct, it is true that words such as jihad, mujahedin, and Caliphate carry intensely positive and honorable connotations for the Muslim jihadis but hardly for the rest of us, their intended targets for subjugation within the totalitarian system that Sharia would impose.
In any case, use or non-use by infidels of the very terms by which jihadis identify themselves, to the extent that it might even be noticed, cannot possibly confer any additional measure of legitimacy on what has been for the mujahedin a centuries-old campaign of duty to spread their faith.
What Americans need to understand is that Islamic jihadis, whether part of a formal terrorist organization such as al-Qaida or the Muslim Brotherhood, or merely ideologically driven by the actions and proclamations of such groups, are internally motivated by what they believe is a divine mandate to fight and kill until the entire world comes under the sway of Dar al-Islam (where Sharia law prevails). The only relevance for this enemy that the choice of descriptive words may have is in the area of psychological operations.
If the jihadi enemy can achieve such a state of muddled confusion among the top administrative, legislative, and military leadership of its primary enemy (the United States of America) that we no longer even permit ourselves to utter the name of those sworn to our destruction, then truly they are winning the “War of Ideas.”
From a series of excellent recent media pieces, as well as extensive documentation entered into evidence in last year’s Holy Land Foundation terror financing trial, we now know the extent of Muslim Brotherhood activity throughout our society.
Muslim Brotherhood organizations such as the Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), the Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR), and the International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT), all three listed by the Department of Justice as unindicted co-conspirators, have achieved unprecedented access to the Department of Defense and even the White House.
But aware now of the enemy’s stealth and cunning in seeking to influence U.S. national security policy, the nation is obligated to reject his agenda an agenda that prioritizes concealment until it is too late of the true nature of their campaign of conquest, whether by Dawa (persuasion, including by way of deception) or terrorist attack.
http://www.metimes.com/Politics/2008/04/28/score_one_for_the_muslim_brotherhood/9562/

Muslim Brotherhood Supreme Guide: Bin Laden is a Jihad Fighter, Special Dispatch Series – No. 2001 – July 25, 2008
http://www.memri.org/bin/articles.cgi?Page=archives&Area=sd&ID=SP200108

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JIHAD IN WW2 – ‘holy war’ in the Muslim world during WW2 – Historic truth – Islamofascism

December 6, 2010

The following are examples of the clearly ‘Holy War’ jihad in WW2:


Whether by Islamic leaders, Mullahs and “activists” or even by the general public in the Muslim world who Islamicized Hitler in its glorification.


 


ISLAMICIZING HITLER


“The closed circle: an interpretation of the Arabs,” David Pryce-Jones, Ivan R. Dee: 2002 (ISBN 1566634407, 9781566634403), p. 201


Preposterously, Hitler himself was Islamicized on the radio and by word of mouth as “Abu Ali,” and in Egypt at least was referred to as “Muhammad Haidar.” As such, he was prayed for in every village, …
http://books.google.com/books?&id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&dq=muhammad+haidar


“The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini,” Chuck Morse , 2003, p. 31


In Heaven Allah, on Earth Hitler.”… The Arabs would go so far as to Islamicize Hitler’s name rendering it as Abu Ali,…
http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA31


 


CLERIC: SHAKIB ARSLAN


“The Nile: histories, cultures, myths,” Hagai Erlikh, I. Gershoni, Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000 (ISBN 1555876722), p. 194


Much more important was the work by the Lebanese Druze, Amir Shakib Arslan. Arslan was by far the most important figure in the context of Mussolini’s infuence in the whole Middle Eastern arena. He undertook to spread the world of the Duce, and to exploit the Abyssinian crisis in order to inspire the younger generation in the Middle East to revolt against the French and the British. He hoped that such an uprising would enhance pan-Arabism, esepcially his brand, namely Arabism with a strong element of Islamic identity and solidarity. In the dozens of articles published in 1935, Arslan depicted Ethiopia as a historical enemy of Islam, an oppressor of its own Muslims, an enemy of Arab language and culture. A skilled historian, he combined the negative messages of radical Islam with the modern message of fascist propaganda. Most of Arslan’s work was published primarily in Syrian, Lebanese, and Palestinian papers; nevertheless. he had his share in the Egyptian press and was widely read in Egypt.
http://books.google.com/books?id=LcsJosc239YC&pg=PA194


 


GRAND MUFTI: HAJ AMIN AL-HUSSEINI


“The Dhimmi: Jews and Christians under Islam,” Bat Yeʼor, 1985, p. 389


The Mufti of Jerusalem and the Nazis (1943-1944) The German radio announcer describes a meeting in Berlin on 2 November 1943 … After several anti-Jewish quotations from the Koran, Haj Amin el Husseini, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=6bEwc2FStIYC&pg=PA389


“Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam,” David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz, Transaction: 2009, p. 131


Fatwas and Holy War: Al-Husseini’s Legacy as a Pioneer of Modern Jihad
During the 1920 and 1930s. Haj Amin al-Husseini was one of the first radical Islamic leaders to issue fatwas, or religious rulings, calling for jihad, or holy war, against Great Britain, the United States, the Jews, and the West. Since Workd War I, during which al-Husseini served as an officer in the Ottoman Turkish army, the fatwa was served as a major instrument by which Islamic religious leaders have impelled their followers to engage in acts of jihad, which invariably involved acts of violence and terrorism.
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA131


(p. 53)
Arabs in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Iraq, and Egypt were called upon, “in the name of the Koran and for the honour of Islam, to saborage the oil pipe lines, blow up bridges and roads along British lines of communication, British troops, destroy their dumps and supplies, mislead them by false information…In these exhortations, the mufti frequently reiterated to his Muslim listeners that they could achieve eternal salvation by rising up and killing the Jewish infidels living in their countries…
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA53


“Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice,”  Bernard Lewis Lewis, W. W. Norton & Company: 1999, p. 147


His immediate aim was to halt and terminate the Jewish settlement in Palestine. Beyond that, however, he aimed at much vaster purposes, conceived not so much in pan-Arab as in pan-Islamic terms, for a Holy War of Islam in alliance with Germany against world Jewry, to accomplish the final solution of the Jewish problem everywhere.
http://books.google.com/books?id=GteStbiDEjAC&pg=PA147


“Global Issues: Selections From CQ Researcher,” CQ Researcher, 2009, p. 158


From 1939 to 1945, the mufti’s Arabic radio broadcasts, which mixed anti-Semitic propaganda with quotes from the Koran, made his station the most popular in the Arab world
http://books.google.com/books?id=6HPB3DlB-m8C&pg=PA158


“Cairo to Damascus,” John Roy Carlson, READ BOOK: 2007, pp. 419-420
 
The Mufti also organized an Arab Brigade and a Moslem Legion to fight side by side with the Nazis. An Arab leader accepted a commission as colonel in the Wehrmacht. Turning
ing to large Moslem populations in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Albania, the Mufti with the help of Pavelich, the Croatian quisling, recruited substantial numbers of Moslem Holy Warriors who fought as the Waffen SS, and the “Free Arabia” movement. the Mufti visited these troops frequently praying with them, exhorting them to fight for Allah.
http://books.google.com/books?id=I-nzRJpb5CIC&pg=PA419


 


PRO-NAZI RASHID-ALI GROUP


“The Third Reich and the Arab East,” Lukasz Hirszowicz, Routledge & K. Paul: 1966, p. 135


On February 28th, Salah ed-Din es-Sabbagh, Fahmi Said and Mahmud Salman of the Golden Square, Rashid Ali el-Kilani, Yunis es-Sebawi, Shawkat and Hajj Amin met at the latter’s residence (Zahawi Street, Baghdad). All present swore on the Koran and adopted their grandfathers’ names as conspiratorial pseudonyms. El-Huseini was chosen leader of the group..


(p. 265)
He described a meeting with the Mufti at Baghdad on February 28th, 1941, at which ‘Rashid Ali swore on the Holy Koran that he is joining the organization and will be faithful to its programme and members for the rest of his life. All present took the same oath.’ This was written by Naji Shawkat in reply to a letter from the Mufti asking him to confirm certain circumstances connected with the meeting of…
http://books.google.com/books?id=nra6AAAAIAAJ&q=koran


 


MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD


“The broken crescent: the “threat” of militant Islamic fundamentalism,” Fereydoun Hoveyda, National Committee on American Foreign Policy, Greenwood Publishing Group: 2002, (ISBN: 0275979024) p. 25



He did not hide his admiration for Mussolini and Hitler and envisioned himself as an Islamic “just despot.” Impressed by the fascists’ para-military youth groups, he created his own “battalions” (Kataeb in Arabic, meaning “phalanxes”). In 1938 he was proclaimed the “Supreme Guide.” At this point, al-Banna called for a jihad against the “heathen, the apostates, the deviants,” and all other “enemies of Allah,” including all infidels. Islam’s banner, he declared, should cover the whole world.

http://books.google.com/books?id=UOCkuvtS_8sC&pg=PA25

“The Hama Massacre – Reasons, Supporters of the Rebellion, Consequences,” Dipl. Paed. Kathrin Nina Wiedl: 2007, p. 31


According to reports of the former American prosecutor Loftus, The founder of the Muslim Brotherhood, Hassan al-Banna was a secret admirer of Hitler and wrote him frequently letters.

http://books.google.com/books?id=-2jCN5Ur6yUC&pg=PA31


“Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11,” Matthias Küntzel, Telos Press: 2007, p. 147


The Brothers declared jihad against British troops stationed in the Canal Zone.
http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PA147

ARAB MUSLIM NAZISM – DOCUMENTATION: Your Reference Guide

November 26, 2010

ARAB MUSLIM NAZISM – DOCUMENTATION


In GeneralSome of the groupsPan-Arabism & NazismIrony of non-Aryan “inferior” Arabs’, Bosnians’ racesArab Nazi PartiesGrand MuftiRashid AliUmmarAl-Banna / Muslim BrotherhoodReza Pahlevi – IranIbn Saud / S. ArabiaKing Farouk / EgyptShakib ArslanYoung EgyptBaathKhairallah Tuflahal-MiqdadiAl-Sabawial-Muthanna Club & al-FutuwwaSSNPNajjadaHandscharAdmiration & worshipping


IN GENERAL



  
An Urgent Wakeup Call 
Jihad and Jew-Hatred: Islamism, Nazism, and the Roots of 9/11, by Matthias Küntzel, trans. Colin Meade, Telos Press, 2007, 180 pp.
Reviewed by Amnon Lord [2008]

“We were the first to think of translating Mein Kampf,” wrote Sami al-Jundi, a leader of the Syrian Ba’ath Party in the 1930s. “Whoever lived during this period in Damascus would appreciate the inclination of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power which could serve as its champion” (26). Al-Jundi also confessed that “we were racist, admiring Nazism, reading its books and the sources of its thought, particularly Nietzsche, Fichte, and H. S. Chamberlain” (25).


How many people know that Arab delegations and senior political figures were invited to the annual Nazi rallies in Nuremberg during the 1930s? Such details are not simply random anecdotes from the remote past. Indeed, in his new book Jihad and Jew-Hatred, German scholar Matthias Küntzel argues that the origins of the Islamist terror of recent years, which culminated in the attacks on the United States on 11 September 2001, and of the radical anti-Semitic ideologies of Hamas, Hizballah, Iran, the Palestine Covenant, and al-Qaeda, lie in the lethal link between Islamism and Nazism.
http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DRIT=3&DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=253&PID=0&IID=2330&TTL=Amnon_Lord_on_Jihad_and_Jew-Hatred:__Islamism,_Nazism,_and_the_Roots_of_9/11,_by_Matthias_K%C3%BCntzel


The Nazi-Islamist Connection – Herbert Eiteneier, JCPA


Palestinian maps, including in textbooks, do not show Israel at all; Palestinian sources omit the Mufti’s role in Nazism and deny the Holocaust, …

http://www.jcpa.org/phas/phas-eiteneier-s06.htm


Der Spiegel, 05/23/2007

World War II
New Research Taints Image of Desert Fox Rommel

By Jan Friedmann

Arabs Shouted “Heil Rommel”



Hitler was celebrated in large parts of the Arab world, and some newspapers even likened him to the Prophet. The Desert Fox was almost as popular as Hitler. “Heil Rommel” was a common greeting in Arab countries.



Many Arabs thought the Germans would free them from the rule of the old colonial powers France and Britain. Hitler had shown how to burst the shackles of the Treaty of Versailles. After Germany defeated France in 1940, chants against the French and British echoed around the streets of Damascus: “No more Monsieur, no more Mister, Allah’s in Heaven and Hitler’s on earth.”



Adolf Hitler assured the exiled Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Muhammad Amin al-Husseini, at a meeting in Berlin in November 1941 that his goal was the “destruction of Jewry living in Arabia.” The Führer had racist objections to Arabs as well, though. He declined to shake the Mufti’s hand and refused to drink coffee with him.



Hitler nevertheless provided the Mufti, who later sponsored Palestinian leader Yasser Arafat, with a budget of 750,000 Reichsmark per month to foment Jihad in Palestine. In an example of ideological flexibility, the SS even recruited Muslim volunteers and declared that the Muslims living in the Balkans belonged to the “racially valuable” peoples of Europe.

http://www.spiegel.de/international/germany/0,1518,484510,00.html

Indigenous Indians: Agastya to Ambedkar, by Koenraad Elst, [Voice of India] 1993, 483 pages, Page 353 [8185990042, 9788185990040]



Young Fidel Castro would imitate Mussolini in front of the mirror. The secularist Baath Party in Syria and Iraq was modelled on Mussolini’s Fascist Party. The Iranian Shah Reza Pahlevi was an open admirer of Hitler (for which he was forced by the British to abdicate in favour of his son).

nbsp;The Muslims in particular were enthusiastic. …Muslim nations rallied to ally with Hitler: the Bosnian Muslims, the Kalmuks, the Chechen and Ingosh, the Balkans, the Meshkets, and the Krim Tatars. In West Asia, prominant leaders like the Druze leader Shakib Arslan (Walid Jumblatt’s father) and the Mufti of Jerusalem allied themselves with Hitler.

http://books.google.com/books?id=exVuAAAAMAAJ&q=Muslims


The war aims and strategies of Adolf Hitler – Page 161 – Oscar Pinkus – 2005 – 537 pages



The sympathies for Hitler extended all the way from the Islamic Bosnians and Albanians in Europe to the Arab countries in Africa and…

http://books.google.com/books?id=gPnjXC1lEJ8C&pg=PA161


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Pages 10-11 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages


Male supremacy, sexual repression, the celebration of jihad and the glorification of a martyr’s death in war with unbelievers (al-Banna celebrated “the art of death”) and hatred of the Jews all created points of commonality with fascism and Nazism…

http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PR10





Pan-Arabism & Nazism

Arab-Jewish relations: from conflict to resolution? : essays in honour of Moshe Ma’oz, Elie Podeh, Asher Kaufman – [Sussex Academic Press] 2005 [ISBN 1903900689, 9781903900680] – Page 136



King Faysal I was far as can be imagined from anti-Semitism…. Faysal was highly popular with Jews, who saw in him their protector. But soon after King Ghazi (1933-39) took over things deteriorated. The young king, while not explicitly ant-Semitic, moved very close to radical pan-Arab and pro-Nazi circles. At least two of the royal family’s members outdid even the Nazi senior representative in Baghdad, …

http://books.google.com/books?id=MOzJeyjF2_UC&pg=PA136


Independent Iraq, 1932-1958: a study in Iraqi politics – Majid Khadduri – 1960 – 388 pages – Page 240


They held a conference late in October in which it was decided that their struggle to achieve the pan-Arab mission should be continued in collaboration with the Axis Powers

http://books.google.com/books?&id=uh4xAAAAIAAJ&dq=common+enemy


The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini By Chuck Morse – Page 28 – 2003 – 186 pages


The pan-Arabist seeks a world empire based on the Islamic faith with the Arab language and culture serving as the centerpiece. Likewise, the Nazi pan-Aryan sought a world empire with a mystical concept of the Germanic race serving as

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA16





Among the many various Arab pro-Nazi, fascist groups

  • The Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc).
  • The League for National Action (headed by Abdu al-Huda al-Yab, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others).
  • The An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd Al-Fattah al-Imam).
  • The Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine (head by well known pro-Nazi leaders, such as Nabi al-Azmah, Adil Arslan and others)
  • The Syrian People’s Party.
  • The Istiqlal.
  • The Muthana Club.
  • Moslem Guidance Society.
  • The Palestine Defense Society.
  • The Tajaddad Club.
  • The Arab Rover Society.
  • Arab High Committee (Haj Amin el Husseini’s).
  • Najjada [Najjadah] in Lebanon (pan-Islamic, pan-Arab).
  • The Futuwwah in Iraq (Hitler-youth type).
  • The Blue Shirts and Green Shirts in Egypt.
  • League of National Action.
  • The Lion Cubs of Arabism.
  • The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (led by Antun Sa’ada with Nazi imitated symbols and hymm of ‘Syria, Syria Uber alles).
  • The Arab Club.
  • The Steel Shirts.
  • The early Ba’ath movement.
  • The Kalmuks.
  • The Chechens.
  • The Ingosh.
  • Balkans.
  • The Meshkets.
  • The Krim Tatars
  • The White Shirts (in Lebanon).

The Arab war effort: a documented account By American Christian Palestine Committee, 1946, p. 7

IN SYRIA AND THE LEBANON connections between certain groups of Syrian leaders and the Axis States were of long standing…. the Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc, still a member of the Syrian parliament in 1946); the League for National Action (headed by Abdu al-Huda al-Yab, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others); the An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd Al-Fattah al-Imam); the Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine (head by well known pro-Nazi leaders, such as Nabi al-Azmah, Adil Arslan and others); the Syrian People’s Party…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=fxzPAAAAMAAJ&dq=well+known+pro-Nazi

page 33

With the stimulus that the ex-Mufti exerted and with the German armies sweeping victoriously over the Continent of Europe, the Muthana Club, Moslem Guidance Society, the Palestine Defense Society, the Tajaddad Club, and the Arab Rover Society, to quote the names of but a few bodies and societies, intensified their pro-Nazi subversive activities in the hopes that by so doing they would eventually, through enemy assistance, realize their Pan-Arab aspirations.
http://books.google.com/books?id=KGMZAAAAIAAJ&dq=defense+of+palestine

Die Welt des Islams, 1985, [Wild, Stefan. “National Socialism in the Arab near East between 1933 and 1939.”] p. 127

In the following section I shall describe five parties and movements in the Arab word which to a greater or lesser degree had taken over certain elements of National Socialism or Fascism, namely the Baath (Ba’th)- Party, the Syrian Socialist Nationalist Party, the Kataeb (katd’ib), Young Egypt (Misr al-Fatdh) and the Futuwwa. I shall then concentrate briefly on ideological factors like the influence of Friedrich Nietzsche, the concept of the “strong nation”, racialism and European antisemitism.
http://books.google.com/books?&id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=five+parties
[PDF] http://www.tcd.ie/history//undergraduate/pdf/bwwii/jstorarticles/Stefan%20Wild%20National%20Socialims%20in%20the%20Arab%20Middle%20East%201933%201939.pdf


Letter to an Arab friend By André Chouraqui, Univ of Massachusetts Press, 1972

In 1936… That year an Arab High Committee was formed in the month of April and was presidedover by the mufti, Hadz Amin el Husseini. It included the most reactionary elements of the Arab world and enleashed a revolt which transformed Palestine into a stronghold occupied by more than twenty thousand British soldiers. These Arab elements had been inspired by Fascists and Nazis, a fact since established by the publication of the secret Wilhemstrasse Archives. The Arab High Committee had receieved the financial support of the Nazis and Fascists who financed the revolt, with the Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el Husseini, acting as intermediary. Hitler and his police achieved in Palestine what they had attempted throughout the Arab world (against the Jews)

http://books.google.com/books?id=l6FoAeIPcuEC&pg=PA108


Confronting fascism in Egypt: dictatorship versus democracy in the 1930s – Page 273 – I. Gershoni, James P. Jankowski – 2009 – 344 pages



The activities of the radical youth organization al-Futuwwa are considered a a manifestation of Nazi youth indoctrination practices, and speeches supporting Nazism delivered in Baghdad’s Pan-Arab al- Muthanna Club perceived as reflecting popular support for Nazi Germany among the Iraqi effendiyya.

In Syria, studies analyzing the process of radicalization in the 1930s often highlight pro-fascist tendencies among various newly created nationalist [p. 274] organizations. These tendencies are seen as having manifested themselves particularly in the mushrooming of new radical youth organizations such as the League of National Action, the Lion Cubs of Arabism, the Syrian Social Nationalist Party led ny Antun Sa’ada, the Arab Club, the Steel Shirts, the early Ba’ath movement, and various radical Islamic organizations. In Lebanon, the White Shirts, the najjada…

http://books.google.com/books?id=Aukt0sWDJcsC&pg=PA273

Del fuego: Sephardim and the Holocaust – Solomon Gaon, M. Mitchell Serels – 1995 – 258 pages [Page 114] Publisher Sepher-Hermon Press, 1995 [ISBN 0872031438, 9780872031432

…in Syria and Lebanon, we found for example the Iron Shirts, the League of National Action, the Ah-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus, the Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine, headed at the time by the well known pro-Nazi leaders such as NabichAl-Azma and Adil Arslan. There was the Syrian Popular Party which was led at the time by a well known Fascist, Anton Saade. He escaped during the war to Germany, and from there with the help of …the principal party is Syria and more particularly the Istiqlal group headed by Shukri al…

http://books.google.com/books?id=3rMWAQAAIAAJ&q=arslan

Cuadernos de historia mundial: : Volume 5, Issue 1 – International Commission for a History of the Scientific and Cultural Development of Mankind, 1959, p. 240

The years of the Second World War saw the struggle of democracy against Nazi-Fascist totalitarianism, with Arab sympathies tipped in favour of the latter, not because of any …The National Syrian Party in Syria and Lebanon, the Kata’ib al-Lubnaniyyah (The Lebanese Phalanges), and the Najjadah in Lebanon, the Futuwwah in Iraq, and the Blue Shirts and Green Shirts in Egypt, were among the most conspicuous of these organizations–all appeared in the fourth decade of the century. The peninsula continued to be isolated and immune to such currents, though enjoying its own theocratic totalitarianism, Islam.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=BrcfAQAAIAAJ&dq=najjadah

(Cahiers d’histoire mondiale: Journal of world history. Cuadernos de historia mundial. v.1-14; juil. 1953-1972, Volume 5, Author: Unesco
Publisher: Éditions de la Baconnière, 1959, p. 240


http://books.google.com/books?&id=VvwIAQAAIAAJ&q=futuwwah

Studies in Asian history: proceedings
Author: Indian Council for Cultural Relations
Publisher: Asia Pub. House [for] Indian Council for Cultural Relations, 1969,
p. 412


http://books.google.com/books?id=2lrRAAAAMAAJ&q=nazi)

A History of Fascism, 1914-1945 – by Stanley G. Payne – 1996, p.
352


The Fascist regime had him proclaimed a “hero of Islam” and “defender of Islam” in Italian Libya, where a parallel Libyan Arab Fascist Party was created.
If Mussolini supported Zionists to some extent as a lever against the British Empire, both he and Hitler subsidized Haj Amin el Husseini, the violently anti-Jewish grand mufti of Jerusalem. Anti-Jewish feeling mounted in parts of
the Middle East during the 1930s, as the Fascist and Nazi regimes and doctrines made increasing sense to many Arab nationalists. King Abdul Aziz of Saudi Arabia sought German arms and contacts and was favorably received. Various delegations
of Syrians and Iraqis attended the Niirnberg party congresses, and there were several different Arabic translations of Mein Kampf. Both the German and Italian regimes were active in propaganda in the Arab world, and there was much pro-German sentiment in Egypt. At least seven different Arab nationalist groups had developed shirt movements by 1939 (white, gray, and iron in Syria; blue and
green in Egypt; … Syrian… Iraqi Futuwa… Young Egypt Movement … all three were territorially expansionist, with Sami Shawkat, the Futuwa ideologue, envisioning the “Arab nation” as eventually covering half the globe (though by
vonversion…
http://books.google.com/books?id=NLiFIEdI1V4C&pg=PA352





Ironically, Arabs, or even Slavic-Muslims were considered “inferior” to Nazi Aryans


The Mufti of Jerusalem: Haj Amin al-Husseini and the Palestinian National Movement, by Philip Mattar, [Columbia University Press] 1992



…Nazis viewed the Arabs with contempt. Arabs in Germany received the discriminatory treatment consistent with Nazi racial theories…

http://books.google.com/books?id=XH8qTS5xNUIC&pg=PA100

War aims in the second world war: the war aims of the major belligerents, 1939-45, by Victor Rothwell, Edinburgh University Press, 2005
[ISBN 0748615032, 9780748615032, 244 pages] p. 41


… However, the Nazis were clear in their minds that the Arabs were racially inferior, and there would, therefore, be no pleasure to be had from helping them in anything except for the extermination of Jews in their region.
http://books.google.com/books?id=XfgLbSc94MEC&pg=PA41

SS: Hell on the Western Front – Page 70 – Chris Bishop, Michael Williams – 2003 – 192 pages



On the face of it, Slavic Muslims from southern Europe did not fit too well into the Nazi racial ideology of the Master Race. However, as so often happened, Himmler came up with his own crackpot theories to make them acceptable. Bosnian …

http://books.google.com/books?id=iqWZov065T4C&pg=PA70


Arafat: in the eyes of the beholder – Janet Wallach, John Wallach – [Carol Pub. Group] 1997 – 534 pages – Page 66



The Nazis showed great contempt for the dark-skinned Arabs, even calling them a lower form of life; Adolph Hitler had gone so far as to describe the Arabs as “half apes.”
http://books.google.com/books?&id=_ZrtAAAAMAAJ&q=APES





Arab Nazi Parties

Jamal Husseini



Highlights:



* Arab Nazi movements all over the Middle East.



* Istiqlal movement pushing for Nazi style youth organizations.



* Arab activists of Iraq (like: Abdul Ghaffur el-Bedri, publisher of the newspaper Istiqlal), Palestine (represented by Joseph Francis of the al-Ahram) attempt to found ‘Arab Nazi Parties’ – first rejected by the German Nazis.



* Establishing of the Palestine ‘Arab Nazi Party.’ Jamal Husseini.

The Nazi ‘Hitler youth’ modelled “Futuwwa” in Palestine ‘Nazi Scouts.’




Middle Eastern Myths – “The Myth of Yasser Arafat” by Dr. Richard Booker


During the war, Arab Nazi parties were founded throughout the Middle East.
http://www.rbooker.com/articles/TheMythofYasserArafat.PDF


First things: Issues 154-158, Institute on Religion and Public Life – 2005 – [Page 14]



Several of the Arab political parties founded during the 1930s were modeled after the Nazi party, including the Syrian Popular Party and the Young Egypt Society, which were explicitly anti-Semitic in their ideology and programs. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=4-gnAAAAYAAJ&q=modeled

The third Reich & the Palestine question,” Francis R. Nicosia, Transaction Publishers, 2000, pages 90-91


[page 90]

After 1933, there were attempts in the Arab world to establish political parties based on Fascist or Nationa Socialist principles and organization. Both [German representatives: Fritz] Grobba and [Heinrich] Wolf were approached in 1933 by individuals with plans to create National Socialist parties in Iraq and Palestine, respectively. The Palestine correspondent of the news-paper Al-Ahram, Joseph Francis, represented a group of Palestinian Arabs who were interested in establishing such a party. Francis wrote to Wolf in April, 1933, requesting the help of the Consulate-General in this endeavor. In Baghdad, a similar overture was made to Fritz Grobba by Abdul Ghaffur el-Bedri, publisher of the newspaper Istiqlal, and a group of his supporters, Wolf’s strong opposition to any sort of German encouragement or support for an Arab Nazi party in Palestine was conveyed in a note to the Foreign Office in Berlin in June, 1933,… In Berlin, the Foreign Office concurred with Wolf’s opposition to Arab efforts to involve Germany in the creation of an Arab National party in Palestine… provided the rationale behind the instructions issued to Wolf on the matter…

The objections that Herr Wolf has raised against the promotion of an Arab National Socialist movement by official German representatives are fully supported here. Given the notorious political unreliablity of the Arabs”

[page 91]

Wolf was instructed to discourage contact between pro-Nazi Arabs and the various Ortsgruppen [local branches] of the NSDAP in Palestine, to which many Palastinadeutche were beginning to flock…

http://books.google.com/books?id=8X2G1G_jD-4C&pg=PA90&lpg=PA90

The PLO: the rise and fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Volume 1984, Part 2
Jillian Becker, [Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984] Page 19




In March 1935 the Husseinis also formed a party, called the Palestinian Arab Party.
It was, as its president Jamal Husseini freely boasted, inspired by German Nazism. It included a ‘youth troop’, modelled on the Hitler Youth, for a while actually called the ‘Nazi Scouts‘.

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=jamal+husseini

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=Nazi+Scouts

The case for Israel – Alan M. Dershowitz – [John Wiley and Sons] 2003 – Biography & Autobiography – 264 pages – Page 54


… Husseini organized the “Nazi Scouts,” based on the “Hitler Youth …

http://books.google.com/books?id=Dunx_i1P6fMC&pg=PA54


Righteous victims: a history of the Zionist-Arab conflict, 1881-1999 – Page 124 – Benny Morris – [Random House, Inc] 1999 – 751 pages


… the Husseinis in March 1935 formed the Palestinian Arab Party, whose platform for resistance to the establishment of a Jewish National Home. It set up its own youth corps. al-Futuwwa (the name of an association of Arab knights during the Middle Ages). which resembled Germany’s Hitler Youth and was officially designated the “Nazi Scouts.” At Ihe founding meeting 011 February 11, 1936, Jamal al- Husseini, a principal aide of Hajj Amin, declared that Hitler had stalled out with only six followers and now had sixty million. The fisrt seventy al-Futuwwa recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right: independence — my aspiration: Arabism — my principle: Palestine — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.”
The Husseini-Nazi connection… through the 1930s and early 1940s.

http://books.google.com/books?id=jGtVsBne7PgC&pg=PA124


Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism By David M. Rosen, page 106

…The shrill calls to take up extremist politics invoked a symbolism that glorified youth, violence, and death. By 1936 Al Difaa, the paper of the Istiqlal movement and the most widely read paper in the Arab community, proclaimed, in clearly fascist tones, that “youth must go out to the field of battle as soldiers of the Fatherland.” Others argued that the “Land is in need of a youth, healthy in body and soul like Nazi youth in Germany and the fascist youth in Italy which stands ready for the orders of its leaders and ready to sacrifice its life for the honor of its people and freedom of its fatherland.”


…Nationalist rhetoric accompanied major efforts to build fascist-style youth organizations by recruiting young men to serve as the strike force of the nationalist movement. Throughout the 1930s the children of wealthy Palestinians returned home from European universities having witnessed the emergence of fascist paramilitary forces. Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party. The Husseinis used the Palestinian Arab Party to establish the al-Futuwwa youth corps, which was named after an association of Arab Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the developments of storm troops patterned on the German model. These storm troops, all children and youth, were to be outfitted in black trousers and red shirts… The young recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.”
[…]
The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. While the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq.
http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106


The PLO: the rise and fall of the Palestine Liberation Organization, Volume 1984, Part 2
Jillian Becker, [Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984] Pages 29, 293




[p. 29]

…movement in Palestine, the ‘Army of Salvation’ and a paramilitary youth organization, ostensibly a scout movement, called Futuwwah.
[p. 293]

Futuwwah (Mufti movement)

http://books.google.com/books?cd=1&id=H7BtAAAAMAAJ&dq=futuwwah

The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem revisited, Benny Morris, Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 28



More important in ‘militarization’ of Arab Palestine was the establishment by the Hussenis of the Futuwa (youth companies), in which youngsters were trained in military drill and the use of weapons. The movement, modelled after the Nazi youth organizations…

http://books.google.com/books?id=uM_kFX6edX8C&pg=PA28


A durable peace: Israel and its place among the nations, Binyamin Netanyahu, 2000, p. 209


during this period in Damascus would appreciate the inclination of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power …In Palestine the Mufti’s clan founded the Palestinian Arab Party, which party leader Jamal Husseini asserted was based on the Nazi model..

http://books.google.com/books?id=sj5DqVLshOUC&pg=PA209

History Upside Down: The Roots of Palestinian Fascism and the Myth of Israeli Aggression, by David Meir-Levi, 2010 [ISBN 1458766667, 9781458766663], p. 8


In the early 1930s, as many Arabs in British Mandatory Palestine looked toward an alliance with Hitler as leverage against Britain, al-Husseini … The youth organization established by the mufti used Nazi emblems, names, and uniforms. Germany reciprocated by setting up scholarships for Arab students, hiring Arab apprentices at German firms, and inviting Arab political leaders to the Nuremberg party rallies and Arab military leaders to Wehrmacht maneuvers.
http://books.google.com/books?id=nJSd7fZ-GhYC&pg=PA8

The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini By Chuck Morse – Page 28 – 2003 – 186 pages


Al- Husseini’s own Palestine Arab Party stood for the expulsion of all Jewish settlers and an independent Arab … efforts to assist in the development of what would become distinctly Nazi-Arab style organizations and political parties…

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA28




Grand Mufti – Hajj Muhammad Amin al-Husseini

(Hajj Amin al-Husayni)




Highlights:



* Meeting with Hitler (November 1941).



* Main link between Nazis and the Arab world.



* Attempted the fusion of ‘Islamism & Nazism.’



* The ‘Fuhrer of the Arab world.’



* Pushing for Genocide, even intervened to reroute children heading to Palestine, which were sent to the gas chambers instead.



* Instigating anti-British violence in Palestine and anti-Jewish violence in: Palestine, Iraq.



* His mixed Anti-Semitic Quran speeches made his: most popular radio station in the Arab world.



* Set up the ‘Arab Legion.’



* Recruited SS Muslim-Nazi units.



* Nazi aid to his activities in Palestine – close Palestinian-Arab Nazi ties.



* His holy war, Jihad against: Great Britain, the United States, the Jews, and the West.



* Proclaimed Iraq’s declaration of war in May 1941, a jihad.



* An already de-facto pan-Arab, pan-Islamic leader & appointed by the Nazis the titular of Nazi pan-Arab leader. He aimes for an all out ‘pan-Arab empire’ under his leadership, leading to a future Caliphate.



* Urged the Nazis to bomb Tel Aviv & Jerusalem (but was turned down).



* Tighten ties with his Nazi allies even at the last months of the war, when these were already failing.



* Among his Arab “partners in crime”: Emil Ghouri, Wasef Kamal, Rasem Khalidi, Jamal Husseini and Rashid Ali al-Gailani.



* His immense influence even after the war, the ‘Arab Higher Committee.’ The ‘Arab League.’



* His radical Islamic hatred legacy till today & the foundation of the Middle East conflict.




Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam, David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz

A chilling, fascinating, and nearly forgotten historical figure is resurrected in this riveting work that links the fascism of the last century with the terrorism of our own. Written with vigor and extraordinary access to primary sources in several languages, Icon of Evil is the definitive account of the man who, during World War II, was called “the fuhrer of the Arab world” and whose ugly legacy lives on today. With new and disturbing details, David G. Dalin and John F. Rothmann show how al -Husseini ingratiated himself with his hero, Adolf Hitler, becoming, with his blond hair and blue eyes, an “honorary Aryan” while dreaming of being installed as Nazi leader of the Middle East. Al-Husseini would later recruit more than 100,000 Muslims in Europe to fight in divisions of the Waffen-SS, and obstruct negotiations with the Allies that might have allowed four thousand Jewish children to escape to Palestine. Some believe that al-Husseini even inspired Hitler to implement the Final Solution. At wars end, al-Husseini escaped indictment at Nuremberg and was harbored in France. Icon of Evil chronicles al-Husseinis postwar relationships with such influential Islamic figures as the radical theoretician Sayyid Qutb and Saddam Husseins powerful uncle General Khairallah Talfah and his crucial mentoring of the young Yasser Ararat. Finally, it provides compelling evidence that al-Husseinis actions and writings serve as inspirations today to the leaders of Hamas, Hezbollah, and other terrorist organizations pledged to destroy Israel and the United States.
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC


p. 131

During the 1920 and 1930s. Haj Amin al-Husseini was one of the first radical Islamic leaders to issue fatwas, or religious rulings, calling for jihad, or holy war, against Great Britain, the United States, the Jews, and the West. Since Workd War I, during which al-Husseini served as an officer in the Ottoman Turkish army, the fatwa was served as a major instrument by which Islamic religious leaders have impelled their followers to engage in acts of jihad, which invariably involved acts of violence and terrorism.
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA131


Wolfgang G. Schwanitz on Nazism in Syria and Lebanon. The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933-194 by Dr. Wolfgang G. Schwanitz [JCPA, December 2009]



Amin al-Husaini tried to synthesize Nazism and Islamism. …

http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=111&LNGID=1&FID=388&PID=0&IID=3235


“The Mufti of Berlin
Arab-Nazi collaboration is a taboo topic in the West”, Daniel Schwammenthal, Wall Street Jounal, September 24, 2009




…the Palestinian wartime leader “was one of the worst and fanatical fascists and anti-Semites,” …. He intervened with the Nazis to prevent the escape to Palestine of thousands of European Jews, who were sent instead to the death camps. He also conspired with the Nazis to bring the Holocaust to Palestine. The mufti “invented a new form of Jew-hatred by recasting it in an Islamic mold,” according to German scholar Matthias Küntzel. The mufti’s fusion of European anti-Semtism—particularly the genocidal variety—with Koranic views of Jewish wickedness has become the hallmark of Islamists world-wide, from al Qaeda to Hamas and Hezbollah. During his time in Berlin, the mufti ran the Nazis’ Arab-language propaganda radio program, which incited Muslims in the Mideast to “kill the Jews wherever you find them. This pleases God, history and religion.” Among the many listeners was also the man later known as Ayatollah Khomeini, who used to tune in to Radio Berlin every evening, according to Amir Taheri’s biography of the Iranian leader. Khomeini’s disciple Mahmoud Ahmadinejad still spews the same venom pioneered by the mufti as do Islamic hate preachers around the world.

Muslim Judeophobia is not—as is commonly claimed—a reaction to the Mideast conflict but one of its main “root causes.” It has been fueling Arab rejection of a Jewish state long before Israel’s creation.

http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970203440104574400532495168894.html


Global Issues: Selections From CQ Researcher – Page 158 – CQ Researcher – [Pine Forge Press] 2009
[ISBN 1412980372, 9781412980371] – 368 pages



The Mufti fled Palestine in 1938 to avoid arrest by the British for his part in the Arab revolt. He spent most of the war in Berlin, recruiting Bosnian Muslims for the SS, the semi-military Nazi organization that oversaw Hitler’s extermination of the Jews. From 1939 to 1945, the Mufti’s Arabic radio broadcasts, which mixed anti-Semitic propaganda with quotes from the Koran, made his station the most popular in the Arab world.
[…]
In 1943, as a propaganda stunt, SS leader Heinrich Himmler wanted to permit 5,000 Jewish children to emigrate to Palestine, in exchange for 20,000 German prisoners. The mufti fought against the plan, and the children were sent to the gas chambers. The Nazis funded the burgeoning growth of Muslim fundamentalism, helping the radical Muslim Brotherhood distribute Arabic translations of Mein Kampf, …

http://books.google.com/books?id=6HPB3DlB-m8C&pg=PA158


A history of the Middle East, Saul S. Friedman [McFarland] 2006 [ISBN 0786423560, 9780786423569] pp. 241-3



[p. 241]

In January 1941, the mufti assured the “great Fuhrer” of the “friendship and admiration” of the Arab people. As he put it, Arab people everywhere were prepared to act as is proper against the common enemy… Haj Amin was receptive to Hitler’s offer in March 1941 of a German volunteer legion that would be parachuted into Iraq. He proclaimed Iraq’s declaration of war in May 1941, a jihad. And when that revolt was snuffed, the mufti incited a pogrom in Baghdad that left 110 Jews dead.


[p. 242]

After the failure of the Gailani coup, the Mufti fled to Iran, where he encouraged Reza Khan to oppose the British and Russians. When the allies jointly occupied Persia in August 1941, he fled to Italy, claiming that he had no place else to go. On November 20, the mufti was granted a 90-minute audience with Adolf Hitler at the latter’s Wilhelmstrasse residence. He sought a blessing from the Nazi leader for the creation of a proposed Arab state. Hitler replied it was premature…


  For the duration of the war, the mufti was housed in two elegant villas and subsidized to the sum of 75000 marks per month for heading a special Buro des Grosmufti. Its threefold function: (a) espionage (training of saboteurs), (b) propaganda (public broadcasts on Muslim holy days), and (c) recruitment of 500000 troops for the Waffen SS. Although the numbers never reached such size, dozens of his recruits were charged as war criminals in Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia and Lithuania.
[..]

Haj Amin told one Nazi official: “The Jewish national home must disappear and the Jews get out. They are free to go to Hell.”
[…]

Whenever one of Hitler’s puppets contemplated negotiation with the Allies to rescue Jews, the Mufti presented a stumpling block…
Thus, when King Boris indicated a willingness release 4000 Jewish children for Palestine in May 1943, the mufti protested that the children “present a degree of danger…” Later that month, the mufti reacted against a proposal… that would have permitted 80,000 Jews to flee Romania..



[p. 243]


At a time when the Nazis were transporting Jews to killing centers in Poland, Haj Amin declared, “The Arab nation awaits the solution of the world Jewish problem by its friends, the Axis powers.” He knew what the Nazis mean by Endlosung.
As Dieter von Wisliceny, one of Adolf Eichmann’s aides, reported: “The grand mufti has repeatedly suggested to the Nazi authorities, including Hitler, Ribbentrop, and Himmler the extermination of European Jewry… Even as the military situation deteriorated for Germany in the last 18 months of the war, the mufti found himself drawn closer to his Nazi associates… photographs with Himmler… pledged cooperation And he made it very clear that when the time was appropriate, he would call upon the “best saviour of the Arabs”—Adolph Eichmann—to apply his expertise in shuttling Jews to death camps. Eichmann had met the mufti in the Middle East in 1937 and later testified that he had instructed to open all field on Jewish Question to the affable Arabs….

http://books.google.com/books?id=LCNpmgDOYTwC&pg=PA241

A safe haven: Harry S. Truman and the founding of Israel – Page 213 – Allis Radosh, Ronald Radosh – [HarperCollins] 2009 [ISBN 0060594632, 9780060594633] – 428 pages


[p. 212]

When Kirchway learned that the U.S. delegation to the United Nations backed the British on giving a platform to the Arab Higher Committee, she immediately went into action. First, Kirchwey and the Nation Associates gave out a lengthy report on the pro- Axis activities of the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem to all fifty-five delegations to the United Nations. Most striking was the fact that it was based on classified U.S. government files… The Arab Higher Committee, the report charged, was the “creature of the Arab League” and was run from Egypt by the Mufti, Haj Amin al-Husseini. The committee’s members were not elected representatives but “nothing more . . . than a deal among leaders of the various Arab factions in Palestine—and the will of the grand Mufti.” Three members of the Palestine Arab Higher Committee who were delegates to the U.N. General Assemply, were called, in the Nation Associates report, men who ranked with the “worst of the Axis war criminals.”

… The accounts of the Mufti, Kirchway explained, was documented from captured files belonging to the mufti and the German High Command, all found by American military authorities in Germany.

Along with the report were documents and photos that substantiated the charge that the Mufti controlled and directed the Arab Higher Committee. Photos used showed the Mufti and the other Arab leaders with Adolf Hitler, Heinrich Himmler, and Dino Alfieri…

[p. 213]
Emil Ghouri, the head of the Arab delegation to UNSCOP, and delegates Wasef Kamal and Rasem Khalidi as “notorious for … association with the Mufti and his Axis activities.”

Mufti’s Jamal Husseini… had joined the Mufti in Iraq in 1939… organized a pro-Axis fifth column that led to the anti-British rebellion.

[…] In the Hague, Arab students were trained in explosives and parachuted into Turkey, Syria, and Iraq. Captured records also revealed that the Mufti had accompanied Adolf Eichmann to visit the gas chambers at Auschwitz. Moreover, the Mufti had put an end to negotiations being carried out to ransom Jews in Bratislava, insisting that they all be liquidated. A letter the Mufti had written to Heinrich Heinrich Himmler revealed the Mufti complaining that Joachim Ribbentrop and Himmler had been too lenient, since the had let some Jews leave Germany. “If such practices continue,” the Mufti was quoted as saying, “it would be incomprehensible to Arabs and Moslems

http://books.google.com/books?id=B3SmdKOSPQEC&pg=PA213


The record of collaboration of King Farouk of Egypt with the Nazis and their ally, the Mufti: the official Nazi records of the King’s alliance and of the Mufti’s plans for bombing Jerusalem and Tel Aviv ; memorandum submitted to the United Nations, June 1948 [Nation Associates (New York, N.Y.), United Nations, The Nation Associates, 1948]


PLANS FOR BOMBING JERUSALEM AND TEL AVIV MEMORANDUM SUBMITTED TO THE UNITED NATIONS JUNE 1948

Mufti Urged Nazis to Bomb Jerusalem and Tel Aviv While the …
revealed in a number of secret documents found by the Allies Armies in Germany…
Thus, according to one of these documents, a secret report of the German Air Force Command, dated October 29, 1943, revealed that the Mufti for the past six months had been proposing an attack… “…any attack must be carried out with a very large force in order to have a lasting effect.” But Fieldmarshal Goering was obliged to turn down…
Apparently the Mufti did not rest…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=tdhmAAAAMAAJ&dq=TEL+AVIV

http://books.google.com/books?&id=tdhmAAAAMAAJ&dq=Goering

Icon of evil: Hitler’s mufti and the rise of radical Islam – David G. Dalin, John F. Rothmann, 2008, p. 170

http://books.google.com/books?id=_-IbsuxSQxcC&pg=PA170

A Diary of Four Years of Terrorism and Anti-Semitism [iUniverse
ISBN 0595793002, 9780595793006] – Page 209



One of Mr. Arafat’s personal heroes, the Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini, visited Auschwitz and reproached the Germans for not being more determined in exterminating the Jews. In 1985, Mr. Arafat paid the mufti homage, saying he was ‘proud to no end’ to be walking in his footsteps.
http://books.google.com/books?id=HSpmk7x0rbMC&pg=PA209


A history of the Holocaust – Saul S. Friedman – [Vallentine Mitchell] 2004 – 494 pages – Page 339


He considered this a comfortable solution to the Palestine problem. The Mufti was especially fond of Himmler, calling him ‘an understanding, great and energetic man’.50 In July 1944, when 400000 Hungarian Jews were being transported to Auschwitz, Haj Amin complained to Himmler that the Nazis were too lenient with the Jews. He asked that the German government make no more

http://books.google.com/books?id=4fwhAQAAIAAJ&q=mufti+himmler

Free Europe: Volume 6 – Free Europe, 1942 [Original from Indiana University] – Page 41



The Grand Mufti… He has met Hitler. Berlin nurses and spends lavishly on every kind of minority movement which can spread confusion and …the days of the Grand Mufti are not yet ended. he is cast for a leading role in the Nazi plans for the Middle East…. This is where the co-operation of Rashid Ali, ex-King Amanullah and the Mufti of Jerusalem is of vital importance …

http://books.google.com/books?id=pEHTAAAAMAAJ&q=met+hitler


Grand Mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini [Palestine Facts]

I heard him say, accompanied by Eichmann, he had visited incognito the gas chamber of Auschwitz…

http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_mandate_grand_mufti.php

Antisemitism, a history portrayed, by Janrense Boonstra, Hans Jansen, Joke Kriesmeyer, Anne Frank Stichting [Anne Frank Foundation] 1989
[ISBN 9012062020, 9789012062022] p. 101



The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem In 1914, the periodical Falastin – with its extremist Arab nationalist slant – was abolished by the Ottoman authorities because of its racist hate propaganda.
http://books.google.com/books?id=mMEsAQAAIAAJ&q=1914


LIFE – Nov 8, 1937 – Page 104 – Vol. 3, No. 19 – 136 pages – Magazine – Full view


Chief Arab troublemaker (above, left) was the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Haj Amin el Husseini, who played a two faced game with the British.

http://books.google.com/books?id=kD8EAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA104


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Page 11 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages


and weapons to assist the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, Amin el- Husseini and the “Arab revolt” of 1936-1939 in Palestine …

http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PR11


Nazis ‘shipped arms to Palestinians’ – Israel News, Ynetnews May 7, 2006

Nazis ‘shipped arms to Palestinian
British National Archives unveil presence of Nazi S.S. agents in Mandatory Palestine, working closely with Palestinian leaders… The records also show that the news of increased Nazi-Arab cooperation panicked the British government, and caused it to cancel a plan in 1938 to bring to Palestine 20,000 German Jewish refugees, half of them children, facing danger from the Nazis.
http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3248081,00.html

The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini, Chuck Morse
iUniverse, 2003 – History – 186 pages



This is the remarkable story of Haj Amin al-Husseini, who was in many ways as big a Nazi villain as Hitler himself, and to understand his influence on the Middle East is to understand the ongoing genocidal program against the Jews of Israel. Al-Husseini was a bridge figure in terms of transporting the Nazi genocide in Europe into the post-war Middle East.

As the leader of Arab Palestine during the British Mandate period, al-Husseini introduced violence against moderate Arabs as well as against Jews. Al-Husseini met with Adolf Eichmann in Palestine in 1937 and subsequently went on the Nazi payroll as a Nazi agent.


Al-Husseini played a pivotal behind-the-scenes role in instigating a pro-Nazi coup in Iraq in 1941, in urging Nazi’s and pro-Nazi governments in Europe to transport Jews to death camps, in training pro-Nazi Bosnian brigades, and in funneling Nazi loot into post-war Arab countries.

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C



The case for Israel – Alan M. Dershowitz – [John Wiley and Sons] 2003 – Biography & Autobiography – 264 pages


In August 1929, leaflets prepared by the mufti Haj Amin al-Husseini instructed Muslims to attack the Jews
http://books.google.com/books?id=Dunx_i1P6fMC&pg=PA42


Al-Husseini also helped incite the series of pogroms which lasted from 1936 to 1939, in which hundreds more Jews were killed 
http://tech.mit.edu/V123/N12/kraus12.12c.html



The Mufti of Jerusalem: Al-Hajj Amin al-Husayni and the Palestinian National Movement, Philip Mattar, Columbia University Press, 1992, p. 95


They were to go to Iraq, disguise themselves as Arabs, kidnap or kill the Mufti, and destroy oil installations. … Amir ‘Abdullah’s Arab Legion, and the Transjordanian Frontier Force (Arab troops recruited by the Palestine government ). In a desperate attempt, the Mufti issued a fatwa urging Arabs and Muslims to help Iraq free herself from British imperialism. The fatwa was the most anti- British statement he had ever made,

http://books.google.com/books?id=XH8qTS5xNUIC&pg=PA95


The Mufti’s Conversation with Hitler [JVL]

The Arab Legion would he quite easy to raise. An appeal by the Mufti to the Arab countries and the prisoners of Arab, Algerian, Tunisian, and Moroccan …

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/mufti2.html


A durable peace: Israel and its place among the nations – Page 20 – Binyamin Netanyahu – 2000 – 482 pages




Mufti… Husseini expressed his willingness to cooperate with Germany in every way, including the recruitment of an Arab Legion to fight for the Nazis. Hitler told the Mufti that the two of them shared the common goal of the destruction of Palestinian Jewry…

http://books.google.com/books?id=sj5DqVLshOUC&pg=PA209



Once the mufti relocated permanently to Berlin, where he established his own Reich-supported “bureau,” he was given airtime on Radio Berlin. From [[Berlin]] and other fascist capitals in Europe, the mufti continued to agitate for the destruction of international Jewry, as well as a pan-Arab and pan-Islamic alliance with the Nazi regime, he explained to the German ambassador, Ettel, his plan to bring all Arabs under the banner of Pan-Arabism over to the side of the Axis. (25 June 1942). Here he came out unconditionally for the “final solution” of the Jewish question,” calling on the Germans to wipe out all Jews, “not even sparing the children.” http://books.google.com/books?id=nvD2rZSVau4C&pg=PA497


Al-Husseini was welcomed into Baghdad with cheering crowds and he was hailed as a pan-Arab hero and as a defender of the faith with the same zeal that Hitler was being hailed at Nazi rallies. Upon his arrival, he immediately launched into political intrigue by organizing and effectively gaining control of the secretive pan-Arab and pro-Nazi Iraqi Arab National Party. The agenda of this party was to link up with likeminded groups in Syria, Transjordan, and cis-Jordan (Palestine) for the purpose of throwing out the colonial powers and forming an independent and United Ummah.
http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA49


After instigating a pogrom against Jews in Palestine in 1920, the first such pogrom against Jews in the Arab world in hundreds of years, he went on to inspire the development of pro-Nazi parties throughout the Arab world including Young Egypt, led by [[Gamal Abdul Nasser]], and the Social Nationalist Party of Syria led by Anton Sa’ada.
http://archive.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2003/2/20/145726.shtml


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Page 31 – Matthias Küntzel – [Telos Press Publishing] 2007 – 180 pages [ISBN 0914386360, 9780914386360] – Preview

“The Mufti himself,” wrote Klaus Gensicke in his seminal study, “acknowledged that at that time it was only due to the German funds he received that it had been possible to carry through the uprising in Palestine…” In addition, German weapons were sent through secret channels… In 1920, soon after his return to the mandate territory, he incited anti-Jewish riots in Jerusalem…
http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PA31




Arab contemporaries: the role of personalities in politics
Majid Khadduri – [Johns Hopkins University Press] 1973 – 255 pages – Page 78




Even before he set foot in Axis lands, the Mufti was determined to play the leading role as spokesman for the Arab people. Both as a religious and Pan-Arab leader, he was very widely known in Arab and Islamic lands and had carried on …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=xIkLAAAAIAAJ&dq=set+foot


The Gramsci Factor: 59 Socialists in Congress – Page 113 – Chuck Morse – 2002 – 172 pages


The British backed a successful countercoup and the Mufti proceeded on to Berlin where he was appointed by the Nazi’s as titular head of a Nazi-pan Arab government in exile.
http://books.google.com/books?id=OvV69F3yLukC&pg=PA113


Yad Vashem studies, Issue 35, Part 1 By Yad ṿa-shem, rashut ha-zikaron la-Shoʼah ṿela-gevurah, p. 136


..the Mufti stressed that, “Arab interests are completely identical in thrust with those of the Germans.” […] the Grand Mufti in exile in Germany was not satisfied with mere rhetoric and antisemitic tirades. Rather, he continued to pursue the vision of the destruction of the Jews and the simultaneous creation of a pan-Arab empire under his leadership. This was to culminate in a new Caliphate, yet to be established.

http://books.google.com/books?id=JcDXaeukt4sC&pg=PA136


Hajj Amin al-Husayni: The Mufti of Jerusalem [United States Holocaust Memorial Museum]

Hajj Amin al-Husayni: The Mufti of Jerusalem Apr 1, 2010 … 1974) was the Mufti (chief Muslim Islamic legal religious authority) of … in Palestine; 3) promotion of himself as a pan-Arab and Muslim religious leader. … Hajj Amin al-Husayni: Arab Nationalist and Muslim Leader …
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007665


Future Jihad: Terrorist Strategies Against the West – Page 80 – Walid Phares – 2006 – 310 pages [isbn=1403975116]


“Jihadists and World War II”… While Nazi infidels were ultimately anathema to jihadists, the alliance answered all their practical needs at the moment.
http://books.google.com/books?id=VlUJdPp76dMC&pg=PA80
[p. 81]
“the Third Reich’s leading Muslim ally”
http://books.google.com/books?id=VlUJdPp76dMC&pg=PA81


Jihad and international security – Page 31 – Jalīl Rawshandil, Sharon Chadha – [Publisher Macmillan] 2006 – 235 pages – [ISBN 1403971927]


Jihad against Israel
Perhaps the longest-running jihad in today’s world is the struggle to reclaim Israel for the Muslims. During World War II, the highest ranking Islamic cleric of Jerusalem, the Grand Mufti… Hajj Amin el-Husseini.. …He also helped recruit Bosnian Muslims for the German SS116 and worked to prevent further immigration to Palestine thus ensuring that many Jews would end up in death camps instead. In 1948, a month before the Arab states declared …
http://books.google.com/books?id=J3jbvGFl39MC&pg=PA31


1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war – Benny Morris – 2008 – pAGE 21 – 524 pages


The exiled al-Husseini himself helped raise a brief anti-British revolt in Baghdad in spring 1941 and then fled to Berlin, where he served the Nazi regime for four years by broadcasting anti-British, jihadist propaganda to the Middle East and recruiting Bosnian Muslims for the Wehrmacht.
http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=RA21


Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam – Page 51 – David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz – 2009 – 227 pages

On this visit to Auschwitz, al-Husseini reportedly urged the guards in charge of the chambers to be more diligent and efficient in their efforts…
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA51


The legacy of Islamic antisemitism: from sacred texts to solemn history – Andrew G. Bostom – [Prometheus Books] 2008 – 766 pages – Page 94]


From this sanctuary, he provided active support for the Germans by recruiting Bosnian Muslims, in addition to Muslim minorities from the Caucasus, for dedicated Nazi SS units. The mufti’s objectives for these recruits — and Muslims …
http://books.google.com/books?&id=yIkQAQAAIAAJ&dq=sanctuary


The Gramsci Factor: 59 Socialists in Congress – Page 72 – Chuck Morse – 2002 – 172 pages

Adolf Eichmann actually visited Palestine and met Husseini at that time and subsequently maintained regular … Husseini recruited Bosnian Muslims in Nazi occupied Yugoslavia in his efforts to ethnically cleanse their country of Jews. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=OvV69F3yLukC&pg=PA72


Palestine, 1948: war, escape and the emergence of the Palestinian refugee problem
– Page 43 – Yoav Gelber – [Sussex Academic Press] 2006 – 436 pages



… who had refused to return to communist Poland; Bosnians who had served in the Nazi Muslim legion; Croat Ustasha and Serb Chetniks who had fled from Yugoslavia to Italy; and British defectors from the army and the Palestine police. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=UcSUgrDsD_sC&pg=PA43


Institute for Global Jewish Affairs – Global Antisemitism, Anti-Israelism, Jewish Studies  


The Mufti of Jerusalem


Haj-Amin el-Husseini and National-Socialism, by Jennie Lebel, translated by Paul Münch from Serbian, Belgrade: Čigoja štampa, 2007, 374 pp.
Reviewed by Wolfgang G. Schwanitz


Amin al-Husaini mixed the old traditional and the new racial hatred of Jews into a new ideology which served the totalitarian cause quite willingly.
For his part, the mufti said in 1961 that the Nazis needed no persuasion in their racism against Jews. But Hitler and the mufti influenced each other for the worse.
http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&LNGID=1&TMID=111&FID=624&PID=0&IID=2967



Genocide, critical issues of the Holocaust: a companion to the film, Genocide – Page 132 [ISBN 0940646048, 9780940646049] – Alex Grobman, Daniel Landes, Sybil Milton – [Behrman House, Inc] 1983 – 501 pages

Only the turning tide on the North African front rescued Tunisian Jews from annihilation. … From the mufti of Jerusalem to Anwar Sadat (then merely a junior cadet in Egypt), Muslims in the East regarded Germany with approval. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=8ppCqANI50UC&pg=PA132


The Holocaust conspiracy: an international policy of genocide – Page 235 – William R. Perl – [SP Books] 1989 [ISBN 0944007244, 9780944007242] – 261 pages

With Saudi Arabia in the forefront, the Arabs have repeatedly called for the destruction of the Jewish state. They have proclaimed the Jihad, Holy war, against Israel, the war which according to the Koran must end with the enemy’s total annihilation. In this endeavor the Arabs are making use of the methods applied by the Germans during the Holocaust as well as by directions resulting from their employment of former SS officials.
[…]
As we have stated before in this chapter, history must be viewed as a continuum. Such an unfortunate continuum regarding the Holocaust exist in the continuing Nazi-Arab connection. The influence of these two groups upon each other is mutual. Too little attention is being paid to the way in which Arabs contributed to the effectiveness of the Final Solution program. Haj Amin el Husseini, head of the Supreme Muslim Council and Grand Mufti of Jerusalem, a venomous Jew-hater, had prior to the war organized Arab terrorism against the Jews in Palestine. From 1941 on, he spent much of his time shuttling between Berlin and Rome. He met in Berlin with Ernst von Weizsaecker, State Secretary in the German Foreign Office, with Himmler, and on November 28, 1941 with Hitler. In his meeting, the Mufti tried to strengthen the Fuehrer’s decision to ” exterminate” all Jews, and both agreed that the Germans would fight the Jews mercilessly, in all of Europe “and beyond.”[…]
The Mufti had also met with Eichmann and visited Auschwitz. In Rome, he was received by the Italian Foreign Minister, Count Ciano, and by Mussolini himself. In his meetings with the German officials, the Mufti stressed the need to wipe out as many Jews as possible and to finally revoke the designation of Palestine as a Jewish National Home. He proposed that after the German victory,an Arab state –under his leadership– be created that would consist of Syria, Iraq, Transjordan and the Wesrern, Jewish part of Palestine. In return the Mufti promised Arab revolts against the British who were then predominant in these areas. One such serious revolt aganst the British occured in April 1941.
http://books.google.com/books?id=SlSDYmjJNU0C&pg=PA235


LIFE – Oct 27, 1952 – Page 145 – Vol. 33, No. 17 – 156 pages – Magazine – Full viewMYSTERY MAN OF ISLAM SPEAKS In exclusive talk, mufti defends tie to Hitler and record on Jews by JAMES BELL The name of Haj Amin el Husseini, usually called the Mufti of Jerusalem, has been associated with assassination, riot, …
During the Palestine war the Muft’s holy fighters terrorized Jews, blew up houses and killed many people…
http://books.google.com/books?id=2lIEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA145





[Rachid] Rashid Ali al-Gailani
[Rashid Ali el Kailani]
[Rashid ‘Ali al-Keilani]
[Sayyad Rashid el Keilani]



Highlights:



* Led pro-Nazi, fascist coup in Baghdad, 1941.



* Met with Hitler in 1942.



* Close ties with the Mufti.




Nazi propaganda for the Arab world – Page 60 – Jeffrey Herf – [Yale University Press] 2009
[ISBN 0300145799, 9780300145793] – 335 pages – Preview

… 1941, Rashid Ali Kilani led a pro-Axis coup that overthrew the Iraqi government of General Taha el-Hashimi. Haj Amin el-Husseini was deeply involved. The coup plotters included Yunis …
http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA60


The Iraq coup of Raschid Ali in 1941, the Mufti Husseini and the Farhud… The Coup – On April 1, 1941  the “Golden Square” and the chief of staff of the Iraqi army staged the coup, and appointed Rashid ‘Ali al-Keilani head of the government. Nuri as Said was forced to flee Iraq along with the regent and young king Faysal II. On April 3, a letter from the German Secretary of State Von Weizacker answered Haddad’s letter favorably, but the letter arrived after the coup.


Rashid ‘Ali  stated on April 10 that he would honor the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930, apparently fearing British reprisals .On April 16, Rashid responded to a  request for landing of  British troops at Basra cautiously. He replied that they could land, but must embark immediately for Palestine or Egypt. The British began landing troops on April 16 or 18  at Basra, at first in compliance with Rashid Ali’s conditions, and later in violation of the conditions, since the troops did not leave.  The British played for time and made pretences of accepting the new situation. However, reinforcements from India kept arriving at Basra.


The Iraqi government was also trying to buy time, and entered into a pretence of Turkish mediation of the crisis. However, the Iraqi representative in Turkey, told the German Ambassador von Papen, that there would be no compromise with the  British. Raschid Ali had already asked the Italians for military aid at the end of March, and likewise, Hitler decided on April 10 to send military aid to the Iraqis. However, the shipments took several weeks. The German foreign office got a report from General Keitel of a large shipment, including, for example, some 15,000 rifles and about 800 machine guns.    Arms were shipped from Saloniki and through Turkey and Syria. The shipments from Syria were sent as a consequence of the agreement between the Vichy leader Darlan and Hitler as to general collaboration between Vichy and Germany. In the same agreement Vichy also agreed to allow German aircraft to base and stage through Syria on their way to Iraq, though there would be some pretence involved, so that the Vichy government could plausibly deny to Britain that it was assisting the German war effort. The French also rationed German fuel supplies, and as the Luftwaffe was unable to obtain fuel from Persia or elsewhere, this hampered their effectiveness.


A second group of British troops landed at Basra on April 28, and the Iraqis protested.  On the evening of April 29, about 9,000 troops of  the Iraqi army surrounded the RAF air base at Habaniyeh and the next day the Iraqis ordered that no flights were to take off. However, the Iraqis had insufficient force. The move was instigated by the “Golden Square” officers. Rashid Ali himself apparently wanted to avoid antagonizing the British and wait for supplies from the Germans.


The British strike back – The British struck to lift the siege of Habanniyeh, remove Rashid Ali from power and restore the pro-British government. Though they were initially unable to move from Basra overland, because of the weather and because Iraqis had cut lines of communication, the British were able to use the RAF at Habbaniyeh and Shaiba effectively, and began attacking on May 2.   They had about 90 aircraft, mostly antiquated, but these included a number of Wellington bombers[8]. . The RAF struck the Iraqis surrounding Habbaniyeh  The Iraqis used their air force [9],  very sparingly and not very effectively.  At the same time, relatively small numbers of British reinforcements were ferried by air from Basra.  Iraqi anti-aircraft fire and artillery proved ineffective. By May 6 the Iraqi force was defeated and the siege of Habbaniyeh was abandoned, though the roads were still blocked.  The RAF also destroyed most of the Iraqi air force on the ground by about May 8.


German Aid  – During this time, several German officers and diplomats were seconded to Iraq to oversee Luftwaffe  operations and the arms supply. Dr Fritz Grobba, the former consul, now returned to oversee the arms shipments and a Major Hansen was sent to oversee the transfer of aircraft. Grobba allegedly distributed sums of money to both Rashid Ali and the Mufti. Raschid Ali got about 90,000 pounds, and the Mufti reportedly got about $10,000.
http://www.mideastweb.org/iraqaxiscoup.htm


Reference Guide to the Nazis and Arabs During the Holocaust: A Concise Guide to the Relationship and Conspiracy of the Nazis and the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in North Africa and the Middle East During the Era of the Holocaust – Pages 32-3 – Shelomo Alfassa – [Lulu.com] 2006 [ISBN 0976322633, 9780976322634] – 70 pages


Working with an old ally, Rashid Ali al-Gaylani, who became prime minister of Iraq in March 1940, the Mufti “obtained promises of Axis support, and in April 1941 carried out an anti-British and pro-Nazi coup” in Baghdad.
http://books.google.com/books?id=T2g2XA53UOEC&pg=PA32
[p. 33]
From Syria they extended their activities to Iraq, where they helped to establish a pro-Nazi regime headed by Rashid Ali al-Gailani. This was overthrown by the British, and Rashid Ali went to join his friend the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem 
http://books.google.com/books?id=T2g2XA53UOEC&pg=PA33


The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini – Page 50 – Chuck Morse – 2003 – 186 pages

In June of 1941, the Nazis would launch Operation Barbarossa which involved a full frontal assault on their erstwhile ally the … On April 1, 1941, the well planned pro-Nazi coup d’etat was launched and it brought General Rashid Ali …
http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA50





Ummar


Prevent World War III., Issues 53-57
Author Society for the Prevention of World War III (New York, N.Y.)
Publisher Society for Prevention of World War III, 1959

Page 40
Mr. Ummar was also a member of the Rashid Ali conspiracy. As early as 1936 he went to Germany and studied at the Nazi dominated universities in Berlin and Jena. Ummar too had to flee after the failure of the 1941 revolt and he wound up in Nazi Germany. As an avid admirer of Hitler’s “New Order” and
http://books.google.com/books?id=ckHTAAAAMAAJ&q=pro+nazi


British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1940 through 1945. Near and the Middle-East. Eastern Affairs, january 1942-june 1942 – Malcolm Yapp, Paul Preston, Michael Patridge – 1997 – 357 pages – p. 308

Rashid Ali, however, flouted constitutional precedent by refusing to resign and coerced the Regent into signing decrees … In forming his Cabinet General Taha retained two members of Rashid Ali’s team, Umar Nadhmi, who took over the …
http://books.google.com/books?&id=4jWQAAAAMAAJ&dq=Umar+Nadhmi


Records of Iraq, 1914-1966: 1941-1945: Volume 9 – Alan de Lacy Rush, Jane Priestland – 2001 – 857 pages [Page 398]

Rashid Ali, however, flouted constitutional precedent by refusing to resign and coerced the Regent into signing … Tahu retained two members of Rashid Ali’s team, Umar Nadhmi, who took over the Ministries of Interior and Justice, 
http://books.google.com/books?id=sWZtAAAAMAAJ&q=Umar+Nadhmi+rashid+ali





Khairallah [Khayrallah] Tuflah (Iraq)
[Tolfah]

[Taflah]


Highlights:



* Devout Sunni Muslim.



* An army officer who Participant in the 1941 Rashid Ali al-Gailani pro-Nazi coup / Mufti‘s associate.



* Professed an ardent admiration for Hitler.



* Hatred for the British, racist views of Persians, Jews [author of infamous pamphlet “Three whom God should have created…”



* Mentor to Iraq’s dictator Saddam Hussein, who admired him, adopted his bigoted teaching, he republished his uncle’s material & “practiced” it.

A time of our choosing: America’s war in Iraq – Page 25 – Todd S. Purdum – 2003 – 319 pages


Tulfah, an army officer, had supported a coup against the British- backed Iraqi monarchy in 1941 and spent five years in prison. He taught Saddam to distrust foreigners and filled him with admiration for the emerging pan-Arab nationalism of Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt.

http://books.google.com/books?id=YFZSWh8pUWUC&pg=PA25


Middle Eastern leaders and Islam: a precarious equilibrium – Page 92 – Sonia Alianak – 2007 – 241 pages



Accordingly, Khayrallah, an army officer, took part in the abortive uprising led by Rashid Ali al-Gailani against the British-controlled monarchy in 1941. Saddam would later say of his uncle’s influence, “My maternal uncle was a nationalist” and “He always inspired us with a great nationalistic feeling” (Matar, 1981, p. 22).

http://books.google.com/books?id=IiV_q4CYXA0C&pg=PA92


Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam – Page 88 – David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz – 2009 – 227 pages



Khairallah Talfah was an Iraqi army officer and passionate Arab nationalist who had been one of al-Husseini’s most trusted lieutenants in their short-lived pro -Nazi coup that had briefly returned Rashid Ali …

http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA88


Secrets of the Holy Lance: The Spear of Destiny in History & Legend – Page 317 – Jerry E. Smith, George Piccard – 2005 – 341 pages



During the failed Iraqi coup of 1941, the task of assassinating the Iraqi leader , Karim Qassim, was given to one Khairallah Tulfah – – the uncle and guardian of Saddam Hussein…

http://books.google.com/books?id=qGX3ZtD_UikC&pg=PA317

Iraq President Suddam Hussein Handbook – Page 7 – IBP USA, USA International Business Publications – 2003 – 380 pages



At around ten, Saddam fled the family and returned to live in Baghdad with his uncle, Kharaillah Tulfah. Tulfah, the father of Saddam’s future wife, was a devout Sunni Muslim and a veteran from the 1941 Anglo-Iraqi War between Iraqi …

http://books.google.com/books?id=OXsij4BGMmcC&pg=PA7


The complete idiot’s guide to understanding Iraq – Page 149 – Joseph Tragert – 2003 – 318 pages



It was (and is) not uncommon for an elder in an Iraqi tribal group to take in a young child in need of direction. …Saddam’s uncle gave Saddam an early education in ethnic prejudice; Uncle Tulfah wrote a pamphlet titled: “Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews, and Flies.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=KonR1QVERaEC&pg=PA149

The Journal of psychohistory, Volume 34, Atcom, 2006, p. 122



He was then given away by her to be raised by a terrorist Uncle. His mother remarried. His earliest influence was with his Uncle Khagrallah Tulfah, an army officer stripped of rank by the British after he joined a failed 1941 coup…

http://books.google.com/books?id=Et8nAAAAYAAJ&q=tulfah
..the older man became his guide through the political maelstrom of postwar Iraq… Tulfah had definite theories about Iraqi society. He made them part of the boy’s political education. Later, Tulfah expounded on them in a pamphlet, “Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews and Flies.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=Et8nAAAAYAAJ&q=flies


Gandhi & Churchill: the epic rivalry that destroyed an empire and rivalry that destroyed an empire and forged our age – Page 473 – Arthur Herman – 2008 – 721 pages



The British took Baghdad right afterward, and on June 1, 1941, Rashid Ali fled first to Iran, then to Germany. His associate Yunis el-Sabawi, who had translated Mein Kampf into Arabic, was captured and hanged. Another young officer who fought for Rashid Ali was Khairallah Talfah. He escaped but would pass the lessons of the Iraq war. and of the Nazi cause, on to his four-year-old nephew, Saddam Hussein.

http://books.google.com/books?id=tquxD6dk914C&pg=PA473


Saddam Hussein: a political biography – Page 15 – Efraim Karsh, Inari Rautsi – 2003



In a slim treatise entitled Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews, and Flies, Khairallah defined Persians as “animals God created in the shape of humans.” Jews, in his view … To judge from saddam’s diatribes against Israel and Iran throughout his career, Khairallah’s ideas about Persians and Jews had fallen on fertile soil.

http://books.google.com/books?id=pJcu5L72coUC&pg=PA15


My father’s paradise: a son’s search for his Jewish past in Kurdish Iraq – Page 300 – Ariel Sabar – 2008 – 332 pages

As president, he republished a pamphlet written by his uncle and surrogate father titled “Three Whom God Should Not Have Created: Persians, Jews, and Flies .”

http://books.google.com/books?id=BE89OJmsM4AC&pg=PA300


He dreamed of glory but dealt out only despair, David Blair charts the career of Saddam Hussein, from back-street assassin to Iraq’s vicious dictator, Mar 2003 – Telegraph


The only sympathetic figure in his boyhood was an uncle, Khairallah Tulfah. He rescued Saddam from al-Ouja and took him to Baghdad when he was 10, ensuring the illiterate boy went to school. Saddam would later marry Khairallah’s daughter.



Exactly how his kindly uncle influenced him can be judged by Khairallah’s political views. He nursed a passionate hatred of Britain, then Iraq’s colonial overlord, and a fervent admiration of Hitler.



Khairallah spent six years in jail after joining a pro-Nazi uprising in Baghdad, which the British Army crushed in 1941. He later wrote a pamphlet entitled Three whom God should not have created – Persians, Jews and Flies. In this work, Khairallah described Jews as a “mixture of dirt and the leftovers of diverse people”.



From Khairallah, Saddam imbibed this toxic mixture of nationalism and xenophobia. From his violent rural upbringing, he learned to distrust anyone, absolutely anyone, beyond his immediate family. Saddam the paranoid tyrant can be traced back to Saddam the persecuted village boy.

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1424980/He-dreamed-of-glory-but-dealt-out-only-despair.html?pageNum=1


Saddam Hussein: the politics of revenge, Saïd K. Aburish, Bloomsbury Publishing USA, 2000 [ISBN 1582340501, 9781582340500], p. 123



…the government offered ‘pure Iraqis’ married to anyone with Iranian blood $2500 reward for divorcing them.

http://books.google.com/books?id=7yAHjRJ3LkIC&pg=PA123





Yunis al-Sabawi
[Yunis el-Sabawi]
[Yunus Al-Sabawi]



Highlights:



* Pro Nazi, translated Mein Kampf into Arabic, and published in the Iraqi paper.


* Active in the pan-Arab ‘al-Muthanna Club.’ Headed the [Arabic] ‘Hitler Youth‘ type futuwwa (together with S. Shawkat).



* Among the leaders of the (1941) Farhud pogrom – massacre.




Gandhi & Churchill: the epic rivalry that destroyed an empire and rivalry that destroyed an empire and forged our age – Page 473 – Arthur Herman – 2008 – 721 pages



The British took Baghdad right afterward, and on June 1, 1941, Rashid Ali fled first to Iran, then to Germany. His associate Yunis el-Sabawi, who had translated Mein Kampf into Arabic, was captured and hanged…

http://books.google.com/books?id=tquxD6dk914C&pg=PA473


Holocaust Encyclopedia, The Farhud [United States Holocaust Museum]


The rise of this pro-German government threatened the Jews in Iraq. Nazi influence and antisemitism already were widespread in Iraq, due in large part to the German legation’s presence in Baghdad as well as influential Nazi propaganda, which took the form of Arabic-language radio broadcasts from Berlin. Mein Kampf had been translated into Arabic by Yunis al-Sab’awi, and was published in a local newspaper, Al Alam al Arabi (The Arab World), in Baghdad during 1933-1934. Yunis al-Sab’awi also headed the Futtuwa, a pre-military youth movement influenced by the Hitlerjugend (Hitler Youth) in Germany. After the coup d’etat, al-Sab’awi became a minister in the new Iraqi government.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007277


Wolfgang G. Schwanitz on Nazism in Syria and Lebanon. The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933-194 by Dr. Wolfgang G. Schwanitz [JCPA, December 2009]



Indeed, it was the second translation of this book into Arabic. Yunus as-Sabawi of Bagdad, a Nazi follower, had completed the first in 1933 and published it in the Iraqi paper Al-Alam Al-Arabi, known for its hatred toward Jews.

http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=111&LNGID=1&FID=388&PID=0&IID=3235


The complete idiot’s guide to understanding Iraq – Page 104 – Joseph Tragert – [Penguin] 2003 [ISBN 0028643984, 9780028643984] – 318 pages



On June 1, 1941, in the aftermath of the British victory, a campaign of terror by Iraqi “soldiers and civilians” was unleashed… The violence followed an abortive attempt by one Yunis Al Sabawi, a Nazi sympathizer, to slaughter all Jews in central Iraq. (He was deported before he could carry out the plan.) The spasm of violence was part of a two-day descent into chaos now known in Iraq as the farhud [dangerous collapse of order].

http://books.google.com/books?id=KonR1QVERaEC&pg=PA104





Darwish al-Miqdadi



Highlights:



* Arab writer, educator from Palestine.



* Moved to Iraq and ‘educated’ there with his pro-Nazi line.



* Associated with the 1941 Farhud pogrom.




Iraq between the two world wars: the militarist origins of tyranny – Page 91
Reeva S. Simon – 2004 – History – 235 pages

Al-Miqdadi accompanied Iraqi student missions to Germany in the 1930s. While there, the British report, he organized an Arab youth movement along Nazi lines …
http://books.google.com/books?id=GgYyxWqtO3IC&pg=PA91&lpg=PA91


Military preparations of the Arab community in Palestine, 1945-1948 – Page 149 – Haim Levenberg – [Psychology Press – ISBN 0714634395, 9780714634395] 1993 – 281 pages

The other candidate was Darwish Miqdadi, born in Tul-Karem. In 1929 he was expelled to Iraq after taking part in the disturbances of that year. After a spell he returned to Palestine and was re-arrested during the Arab Rebellion. When released, he fled once more to Iraq. In Iraq he did not abandon his nationalist activity; while working as a teacher and education inspector, he published his ideas. He participated in a delegation to Nazi Germany and collaborated with Rashid Ali. He was allowed to return to Palestine in October 1945, and in the summer of 1946 he succeeded Ahmad Shuaqyri as the Director of the Arab Office in Jerusalem.
http://books.google.com/books?id=sxvHK-Cq2RwC&pg=PA149

The Middle East: Abstracts and index: Volume 4  – Library Information and Research Service – 2000 – Snippet view [page 123]

Arab Nationalist Party and the Young Egypt, whose mission became to ideologize this rejection. In 1931, Darwish al-Miqdadi, a Palestinian graduate of the AUB, a teacher in Iraq and an ardent associate to most, if not all pan-Arabist networking of the 1930’s, published his “History of the Arab Nation” which was subsequently adopted as a textbook for the Arab history curriculum in Iraqi intermediate schools. In this book, the Arab ideology and the pan-Arabist view of imperialism were so intractably intertwined that Arab nationalism seemed unimaginable without its opposition to the west. For al-Miqdadi, it was the Arabs’ destiny to occupy the most strategic crossroads of world trade
http://books.google.com/books?id=m6JtAAAAMAAJ&q=Darwish+al-Miqdadi


Politics in Palestine: Arab factionalism and social disintegration, 1939-1948 By Issa Khalaf

Kamil Wafa al-Dajani… Mu’in al-Madi, and Darwish al-Miqdadi. Dajani, Madi, and Miqdadi were Mufti associates
http://books.google.com/books?id=9pRvIDxE5jAC&pg=PA141


The Farhud, the Mufti inspired Krystallnacht in Iraq, 1941 [J. Katz]

The entire Jewish world has heard of Krystallnacht. Yet very few have even heard of the Farhud, where Nazi sympathizers in Baghdad, killed… The Palestinians Fawzi Al-Qauqji Darwish Al Miqdadi, Mufti Haj Amin Al Husseini …

http://www.eretzyisroel.org/~jkatz/farhud.html


The Teaching of History in Iraq before the Rashid Ali Coup of 1941 by RS Simon – 1986


Husri had hired Darwish al-Miqdadi, a Palestinian graduate of the. American University in Beirut, in 1924-25 along with Anis al-Nasuli, whose …

http://www.jstor.org/stable/4283095

Political trends in the Arab world: the role of ideas and ideals in politics – Majid Khadduri – [Johns Hopkins Press] 1970 – 298 pages – Page 183


The third wrote the history of Islam as the “History of the Arab Nation,” Darwish al-Miqdadi, Ta’rikh al-Umma al-‘Arabiya… Darwish al-Miqdadi, a Palestinian teacher who lived in “Iraq-
http://books.google.com/books?&id=qvqBAAAAMAAJ&dq=al-Umma
http://books.google.com/books?id=qvqBAAAAMAAJ&q=Darwish


Palestinian Arab Nationalist and Historian Darwish al-Miqdadi (1898-1961)
http://www.zmo.de/veranstaltungen/2010/Out_of_place_Programme_2010.pdf


European Totalitarianism in the Mirrors of Contemporary Arab … From Ruz al-Yusuf after the so-called Hitler-Stalin pact was signed: “The Animals’ … of Palestinian Pan-Arab Historian Darwish al-Miqdadi (1897-1961). … Arabs and Nazism – Testing Paradigms of a Historical Encounter: Between Local …
http://www.orient-institut.org/English/EventsDetails.aspx?pageid=1694


Middle Eastern Studies, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Oct., 1966), pp. 2-17, by H.J. Cohen


The Anti – Jewish Farhud in baghdad, 1941… On June 1-2, 1941, thousands of Baghdad Moslems attacked the Jews of the town, murdering men and women, children and aged people, raping women and girls and plundering property…


Al-Miqdadi was also active in another organisation. In 1931, he set up a scout group called ‘al-Jawwal ….
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4282184


Lebanon and Arabism: national identity and state formation – Raghīd Sulh – 2004 – Political Science – 382 pages [Page 121] (ISBN 1860640516)


Sami Shawkat… radical Arab nationalists… The ANP consolidadted its influence further by infiltrating and virtually controlling a number of youth organizations, literary clubs and various political groupings. For example, Darwish al-Miqdadi (who was of Palestinian origin) was appointed head of the prestigous Teachers’ Training College (Baghdad) in 1939, a post thgrough which he was able to recruit new members to the party … al-Jawal, a youth organization established in 1934, came under ANP influence when two party members, Matta ‘Aqrawi and Darwish Miqdadi, assumed its chairmanship successively. Nadi al-Muthanna, similar to the Arab Club of Damascus, became ‘one of the many fronts or the cornerstone of this secret organization
http://books.google.com/books?id=49z7AFqIE2IC&pg=PA121





Al-Banna – Muslim Brotherhood

Highlights:



* Muslim Brotherhood’s founder al-Banna’s devout admiration for Hitler & Nazi regime.



* His push to distribute the Arabic translation of Mein Kampf.





The Muslim Brotherhood […]
Al-Banna was a devout admirer of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi regime. During the 1930s, the Brotherhood became more political in nature and an officially political group in 1939.
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Terrorism/muslimbrotherhood.html


Al-Banna was a devout admirer of a young Austrian writer named Adolf Hitler. His letters to Hitler were so supportive that when Hitler came to power in the 1930s he had Nazi intelligence make contact with Al-Banna to see if they could work together. Hitler had Al-banna establish a spy network for Nazi Germany throughout Arabia. Al-Banna promised Hitler that when General Rommel’s Nazi tank division arrived in Cairo and Alexandria, the Muslim Brotherhood would ensure all of the British troops would be killed.
http://www.shoaheducation.com/muslimnazi.html


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Pages 10 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages


Muslim Brotherhood’s decision to distribute the Arabic translation of Hitler’s Mein Kampf and the flow of German money…

http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PR10





Reza Pahlevi


Of Iran





Highlights:



* Great admirer of Hitler.



* The ‘Mussolini of Islam.’



* Introduced racist laws.



* Refused to allow the allies operating against the Nazis.




World fascism: a historical encyclopedia: Volume 1 – Page 342 – Cyprian Blamires, Paul Jackson – 2006 – 750 pages



Reza Shah Pahlavi, interwar ruler of Iran, sometimes referred to as ‘the Mussolini of Islam’. He was an admirer of Hitler and an anti-semite who strove to cleanse the language and culture of his ‘Aryan’ land from anything alien. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=nvD2rZSVau4C&pg=PA342


Mohammed Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran – James D. Cockcroft – 1988 – 111 pages – Page 36



Mohammed Resa’s father became a great admirer of Adolf Hitler, the Nazi leader who rose to power as Germany’s dictator in 1933…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=JiIEFLxZaJwC&dq=Hitler

Genocide, critical issues of the Holocaust: a companion to the film, Genocide – Page 348 – Alex Grobman, Daniel Landes, Sybil Milton – [Behrman House, Inc] 1983 – 501 pages – [ISBN 0940646048, 9780940646049]


In Iran, the nationalistic and pro-Nazi regime of Reza Shah introduced a host of anti-Jewish laws after 1936. So great was the attraction of nazism on the Iranian Shah that Arthur S. Millspaugh, the adminstrator general of Iran’s finances from 1922 to 1927 and from 1943 to 1945, testified “to all intents and purposes, Reza Shah handed over Persia to Hitler.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=DcdiVs9lwvcC&pg=PA348


World and Its Peoples: The Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa By Marshall Cavendish – Page 494 – Marshall Cavendish – [Marshall Cavendish] 2006



However. Iran’s declared neutrality in the war was complicated by Reza Shah’s pro-German sympathies. When he refused to allow the Soviets and British to use the Trans-Iranian railroad, under the pretext of Iran’s neutrality, the Allies ignored the declaration and invaded Iran in August 1941..

http://books.google.com/books?id=j894miuOqc4C&pg=PA494





Ibn Saud


Of Saudi Arabia


Highlights:



* Close [secret] ties with the Nazis.



* Highly racist against Jews, through his ‘Koranic’ view.




The secret war against the Jews: how western espionage betrayed the Jewish people, by John Loftus, Mark Aarons, [Macmillan] 1997 [ISBN 0312156480, 9780312156480] – Page 68 – John Loftus, Mark Aarons – 1997 – 658 pages – Preview


Unlike his other activities, he tried to keep the Saudi-Nazi connection a deep secret. According to sources on both sides of the Atlantic, it was Philby who advised Ibn Saud energetically to court Nazi Germany in the months before the war. The relationship was mutually beneficial. As one US intelligence study found, the Nazis “recognized that King Ibn Saud’s help was essential for renewing the fight against the British and the Jews in Palestine.” The Germans proposed that a new government should be formed in Palestine, under the control of Jack’s old friend, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem. Further, “Jews who had settled in Palestine after the First World War would not be allowed to remain.”


In January 1939 Saudi Arabia established diplomatic relations with the Third Reich, and Ibn Saud confided to the Germans that at heart he “hated the English. ” In the following months he concluded arms deals with Germany and signed a  friendship and trade treaty with Japan. Philby was pleased, especially as Ibn Saud concealed his secret dealings with the Axis from both the British and Americans. The Nazis also were pleased with the progress they had made with the king. They sent their best Middle East agent, Fritz Grobba, to meet with Ibn Saud, and even promised to obtain for him the most prestigious position in the Moslem world, the caliphate. The Saudi-Third Reich connection flourished, with their main link being their mutual hatred for the Jews.
The Nazis even promised to supply Ibn Saud with weapons, ammunition, and an armaments factory, and, according to some accounts, gave him bribes during most of World War II.


The king had many reasons for his secret arms deals with Berlin. The primary purpose “was to increase the flow of weapons which [Ibn Saud] had secretly been sending to the Arabs fighting in Palestine,” in order to “check the Zionist influx that had followed the Balfour Declaration.” Although he later claimed to be genuinely horrified by the Nazis’ Final Solution , Ibn Saud’s attitude toward the Jews was extreme, even by Arab standards. They were “a race accursed by God
http://books.google.com/books?id=trU7nY-T-4EC&pg=PA68

The Nazi Hydra in America: Suppressed History of a Century – Page 368 – Glen Yeadon, John Hawkins – 2008 – 700 pages


Ibn Saud was pro-Nazi. To stay out of British prison as a Nazi sympathizer, Philby added another angle to the 1940 deal by keeping Saudi Arabia neutral during the war for a bribe. In effect, the Saudis were paid to not pump …
http://books.google.com/books?id=vh7sx2xtjGEC&pg=PA368


Quicksand: America’s Pursuit of Power in the Middle East – Geoffrey Wawro – 2010 – 704 pages – Page 71


Saudi Arabia, the king protested, was in the same predicament as Nazi Germany: “ encircled” by hostile powers. … In 1941, Ibn Saud sent a royal envoy to Vichy to negotiate for the eventual cession—by the victorious Germans, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=OiS9UVotQfUC&pg=PT71


F.D.R. meets Ibn Saud – William Alfred Eddy – 1954 – 45 pages – Page 34


… who had suffered indescribable horrors at the hands of the Nazis: eviction, destruction of their homes, torture and mass-murder. … He, Ibn Saud, could not conceive of leaving an enemy in a position to strike back after defeat. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=jVUxAAAAIAAJ&q=nazis


Nazi propaganda for the Arab world – Page 34 – Jeffrey Herf – 2009 – 335 pages – Preview


Following a series of visits in 1938 to Germany by representatives of Saudi King Ibn Saud concerning arms purchases, the Nazi regime established diplomatic relations with Saudi Arabia in January 1939. In return for German political and …
http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA34


1948: a history of the first Arab-Israeli war
Benny Morris [Yale University Press] 2008, p. 33



(1946) Before reaching Palestine, the members visited Arab capitals. At Riadh, King Ibn Sa’ud told them: “The Jews are our enemies everywhere. Wherever they are found…

http://books.google.com/books?id=CC7381HrLqcC&pg=PA33





Shakib Arslan


Highlights:



* pan-Arabist, pan-Islamist, Muslim cleric.



* Pro Nazi.



* In service of the Nazis – translated ‘Mein Kampf’ into Arabic (though that one -at the end- wasn’t published).




Arabism, Islamism and the Palestine question, 1908-1941: a political history – Page 357 – Basheer M. Nafi – [ISBN 0863722350, 9780863722356] (Garnet & Ithaca Press) 1998 – 459 pages


Amongst those who came to be known for their pro-German views were Shakib Arslan , who returned to exile in … it was the efficiency of the Nazi state, its ability to liberate Germany from the constraints of the Versailles Peace Treaty

http://books.google.com/books?id=WhCjkcZZK1AC&pg=PA357


Nazi propaganda for the Arab world – Pages 25-26, 273 – Jeffrey Herf – 2009 – 335 pages


[p. 25]

Hentig… He thought that “a truly good Arabic translation of the Fuhrer’s work would have great propagandistic value.”

[p. 26] and “would meet with extensive sympathy in the whole Arabicspeaking world from Morocco to India… in Arabic that had “the tone of the book that every Muslim understands: the Koran..

Hentig called on Shakib Arslan, a Geneva-based advocate of Muslim activism and Arab nationalism, confidant of Haj Amin el-Husseini, and editor of La Nation arabe, an influencial journal of Arab nationalist opinion, to do the translation. Hentig insisted that the completed text be read by a “scholar of the Koran who will give it the sacred tone which will be understood and valued in the whole Islamic world, a world that reads the Koran.” By November 1938, Arslan’s translation of Mein Kampf was almost done. Its 960 pages were to be published in an edition… On December 21, 1938, the project of an Arabic-language edition of Mein Kampf published by the Nazi regime ended.

http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA25

On Arslan, see William C. Cleveland, Islam against the West: Shakib Arslan and the Campaign for Islamic Nationalism (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1985); and review essay by Martin Kramer, “The Natuon of Shakib Arslan,” Middle Eastern Studies, no. 24 (October 1987) 529-33.

http://books.google.com/books?id=YzQNSTvHv-sC&pg=PA273


International politics and the Middle East: old rules, dangerous game By Leon Carl Brown – I. B. Tauris, 1984 – Page 154


…partitioning Palestine into seperate Jewish and Arab states, a large pan-Arab congress was held in Blutan, Syria… other notables included… and the well-known advocate of Arabism, Shakib Arslan, a Druze from Lebanon.

http://books.google.com/books?id=opRRT_kW7hIC&pg=PA154





King Farouk

Of Egypt


Highlights:



* Colaboration with the Nazis.



* Espionage.




The record of collaboration of King Farouk of Egypt with the Nazis and their ally, the Mufti: the official Nazi records of the King’s alliance and of the Mufti’s plans for bombing Jerusalem and Tel Aviv ; memorandum submitted to the United Nations, June 1948.Authors: Nation Associates (New York, N.Y.), United Nations
Publisher: The Nation Associates, 1948
http://books.google.com/books?id=tdhmAAAAMAAJ


The beast reawakens – Martin A. Lee [Taylor & Francis] 1999 [ISBN 0415925460, 9780415925464] Page 122


King Farouk, who ruled Egypt during the Hitler era, was also a Nazi sympathizer. The king’s palace became a rendezvous point for Axis spies and couriers. Members of the royal family were involved in espionage for Fascist Italy, and many of the king’s mistresses did double duty as Nazi agents.
http://books.google.com/books?id=SX4B7pNG3W8C&pg=PA122


Icon of Evil: Hitler’s Mufti and the Rise of Radical Islam – David Dalin, John Rothmann, Alan Dershowitz – 2009 – 227 pages – Page 41


In a letter to Farouk, the mufti assured the king “that he would be received with all honors due a friendly reigning sovereign” and that he would be given every possible means by the Nazis for continuing the activities of his Egyptian …
http://books.google.com/books?id=QMts5Z36kjAC&pg=PA41





SSNP


Highlights:



* Inspired by Hitler, Nazis.



* Imitation of Nazi hymm, symbols, etc.



* Supremacy.




Lebanon: current issues and background – Page 192 – John C. Rolland – 2003 – 235 pages – Preview


The Syrian Socialist Nationalist Party (SSNP) The SSNP was established in Lebanon in the 1930s by Antun Saadah who hoped … symbol was modeled after the Nazi swastika. The SSNP has a long history of terrorism and subversion in Lebanon. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=-JVOKeNkllgC&pg=PA192


The Near East since the First World War: a history to 1995 – Malcolm Yapp – [Longman] 1996 – 597 pages – Page 113


Like many parties of the 1930s the SSNP adopted the styles of Fascism: Saada was known as al-za’im (the Führer) and the party anthem was “Syria, Syria, über alles” sung to the same tune as the German national anthem.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=BextAAAAMAAJ&dq=ssnp


Colonial citizens: republican rights, paternal privilege, and gender in French Syria and Lebanon, by Elizabeth Thompson, 2000, p. 192

At about the same time, the first Lebanese proto-fascist group emerged in public. The Syrian National Party (Hizb al-qawmi al-suri) was founded in secret in 1932 by a Lebanese emigrant returned from Brazil… Sa’ada used the title fuhrer and a swastika-style cross as an emblem, and adopted a party anthem entitled “Syria, Syria Above All,” set to the tune of “Deutchland Uber Alles.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=B9fruGejwmUC&pg=PA192


All honorable men: the social origins of war in Lebanon – Page 150 – Michael Johnson – 2001 – 298 pages – Preview


Saadeh, the party’s ‘leader for life’, was an admirer of Adolph Hitler and influenced by Nazi and fascist ideology. …
http://books.google.com/books?id=Zydtz0dDntQC&pg=PA150


Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East [Volume 4
Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East, ISBN 0028960114, 9780028960111, Macmillan Reference USA] – Reeva S. Simon, Philip Mattar, Richard W. Bulliet – 1996 – 2182 pages [Page 1717]


The Syrian Social Nationalist party (SSNP) was the brainchild of Antun SA’ADA, a Greek Orthodox Lebanese who was inspired by Nazi and fascist ideologies. Originally known as the PARTI POPULAIRE SYRIEN, the party operated in secret until…
http://books.google.com/books?id=ZXltAAAAMAAJ&q=sa’ada





Young Egypt


(Misr al-Fatdh)
[Ahmed Hussein]


Highlights:



* Founded and was on Nazi, fascist elements, imitating Hitler Youth (“Egypt, Egypt, above all”).

* Nazi – ideologically, very racist, even after “break up” with the Nazis.





Egypt’s young rebels: “Young Egypt,” 1933-1952 – James P. Jankowski – 1975 – 176 pages


Young Egypt became willing to admit influence and/or borrowings from European fascism, Husayn stating that Young … brothers cooperating together” ; and his final article from Germany, in the form of an open letter to Hitler, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=8dFmAAAAMAAJ&q=young+egypt


The Continuum political encyclopedia of the Middle East – Avraham Sela – [Continuum] 2002 – 944 pages – Page 273


Some groups displayed openly Fascist tendencies — such as the “Young Egypt” Party (Misr al- Fatah), founded in the mid- 1930s by Ahmad Hussein (1911-1982). In 1940 Britain forced the dismissal of Premier Maher and the Chief-of-Staff, …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=YJwsAQAAIAAJ&dq=Ahmad+Hussein


Islamism, fascism and terrorism (Part 3) – Asia Times Dec 4, 2002 [Marc Erikson]

Islamism, or fascism with an Islamic face, was born with and of the Muslim Brotherhood. It proved (and improved) its fascist core convictions and practices through collaboration with the Nazis in the run-up to and during World War II. It proved it during the same period through its collaboration with the overtly fascist “Young Egypt” (Misr al-Fatah) movement, founded in October 1933 by lawyer Ahmed Hussein and modeled directly on the Hitler party, complete with paramilitary Green Shirts aping the Nazi Brown Shirts, Nazi salute and literal translations of Nazi slogans. Among its members, Young Egypt counted two promising youngsters and later presidents, Gamal Abdel Nasser and Anwar El-Sadat.

http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/DL04Ak01.html


Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice – Page 148 – Bernard Lewis – [W. W. Norton & Company] 1999 – 295 pages [ISBN 0393318397, 9780393318395] – [pp. 148-9]

Several of the political parties founded at this time reveal the influence of the Nazi model. In 1934, when the anti-Jewish Nuremberg Laws were promulgated, telegrams of congratulation were sent to the Fuhrer from all over the Arab and Islamic worlds, especially from Morocco and Palestine, where German propaganda had been most active. By September 1937, when a major pan-Arab congress was held at Blutan, with the struggle against Zionism as its main theme, the only European present was a German.

 
Before long, political parties of the Nazi and fascist type began to appear, complete with paramilitary youth organizations, colored shirts, strict discipline, and more or less charismatic leaders. Even some of the older parties were affected by these trends.

 More obviously Nazi in form was the Young Egypt Society, formally established in October 1933. Popularly known as “the Green Shirts,” it consisted of a paramilitary hierarchy of sections …

[p. 149]
…Their ideology and form of organization and activity remained, however, thoroughly Nazi, including such devices as fascist salutes, torchlight parades, leader worship [ther slogan was “One party, one state, one leadership”] and,
most characteristically, their use of gangs of toughs to terrorize and silence their political opponents.

  Not least among the borrowings of Young Egypt from Young Germany was its racism and anti-Semitism. This included support for Nazi philosophy, viciously anti-Jewish propaganda in the party press, and the organization of boycotts and harassment directed against the Jewish community in Egypt.

  Despite the public breach with the Germans after the invasion of Czechoslovakia, the inner circle of pro-Axis politicians congregated around the king, and led … espionage…

http://books.google.com/books?id=GteStbiDEjAC&pg=PA148


Jihad and Jew-hatred: Islamism, Nazism and the roots of 9/11 – Page 27 – Matthias Küntzel – 2007 – 180 pages

Minister, was to educate “Iraqi youth in the military spirit in the German fashion” and sent a delegation to march with the Hitler Youth at the 1938 Nuremberg Nazi party rally. Finally in 1933, in Egypt Ahmad Husayn created the “Young Egypt”…
http://books.google.com/books?id=q9Y8E-AYVeoC&pg=PA27

Teaching about the Middle East – Page 137 – Social Studies School Service – [Social Studies] 2002 – 330 pages – [ISBN 1560041005, 9781560041009]


The Young Egyptians movement, popular in the 1930s, looked to the Hitler Youth as its model. At the same time, Egyptians recognized the importance of their own Muslim heritage. Perhaps Islam would provide the best ideological structure …
http://books.google.com/books?id=bhPkkMIDdl8C&pg=PA137

Die Welt des Islams, 1985, p. 134

From its beginnings in the early Thirties the party shared many outward appearances with the European fascists: a uniform (green shirts), a salute (outstretched right arm, palm open and finger pointing to the sky), a flag, a paramilitary organization which demanded absolute obedience to a leader. Like the PPS in Syria, Young Egypt used ultra-nationalist slogans, based on “Deutschland, Deutschland iiber alles”: In the case of Young Egypt “Egypt, Egypt, above all…”.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=young+egypt

[PDF] http://www.tcd.ie/history//undergraduate/pdf/bwwii/jstorarticles/Stefan%20Wild%20National%20Socialims%20in%20the%20Arab%20Middle%20East%201933%201939.pdf

FrontPage Magazine – Nazi Influence on the Middle East During WWII
Jan 5, 2005 … In October 1933, pro-Axis Young Egypt Party was founded. … translator of Hitler’s Mein Kampf into Arabic, describing the Fascist despot in …
http://archive.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=16533





The Baa’th

(B’ath, Baath)




Highlights:


* Baath founders: S. al-Husri [the ‘Arab Fichte’] and M. Aflaq, both influnced by German Fascist, nazi writing.



* Husri’s support for the pro-Nazi coup of Rachid ‘Ali.



* Aflaq though Christian, admired Islam. (Some even say he converted).



* Ideologically – Racist against: Persians, Jews, Kurds & other.



* ‘Master Arab race’ of Baathism.





Semites and anti-Semites: an inquiry into conflict and prejudice – Page 148 – Bernard Lewis – [W. W. Norton & Company] 1999 – 295 pages [ISBN 0393318397, 9780393318395] – [pp. 147-8]

The mood of the 1930s was vividly described by Syrian Sami al-Jundi, an early leader of the Ba’th party, in an autobiographical memoir:

We were racists, admiting Nazism, reading its books and the source of its thought, particulary Nietzche. . . . Fichte, and H. S. Chamberlain’s Foundations of the Nineteenth Century, which revolves on race. We were the first to think of translating Mein Kampf.

 Whoever lived during this period in Damascus would appreciate the incliniation of the Arab people to Nazism, for Nazism was the power which serve as its chapion, and he who is defeated will by nature love the victor.”

 Later al-Jundi describes how in 1940 he was looking for a copy of Rosenberg’s Myth of the Twentieth Century in Damascus, and finally found a French abridgment of it belonging to Michel Aflaq, one of the two founders of the Ba’th.

http://books.google.com/books?id=GteStbiDEjAC&pg=PA147


The United States and the Middle East: a search for new perspectives – Page 266 – Hooshang Amirahmadi – [SUNY Press] 1993 [ISBN 0791412253, 9780791412251] – 491 pages



Founded in the Levant during the 1940s, the Baath party advocates Pan-Arabism ( ie, unity of the entire Arab world… the founders of the Baath party, Michel ‘Aflaq and Salah al-Din al-Bitar, were influenced by fascist thought during their education in France during the 1930s… Itaqi Baathis ideology contains racist elements, especially against Persians, Jews, Kurds, and other minorities…

http://books.google.com/books?id=AmSIOJ5ekIoC&pg=PA266

Encyclopedia of the Developing World: Index – Thomas M. Leonard – 2006 – Social Science – 1759 pages – Page 71



… Pan-Arabism with an emphasis on socialism incorporating ideas from Italian fascism. Ba’ath ideology…

http://books.google.com/books?id=3mE04D9PMpAC&pg=PA71

Fascism: Past, Present, Future, by Walter Laqueur, [Oxford University Press US] 1997
[ISBN 019511793X, 9780195117936] – Page 162




At that time, fascism outside Europe has become a possiblity and, in some cases, a reality. The Iraqi & Syrian regimes have pronounced fascist features… both, the Iraqi & Syrian leadership belongs to the Ba’th Party, an elitist, pan-Arabist group that arose in the 1930s partly as a result of the rise of fascism in Europe.

http://books.google.com/books?id=fWggQTqioXcC&pg=PA162&lpg=PA162

America at war since 1945: politics and diplomacy in Korea, Vietnam, and the Gulf War, by Gary Donaldson [Greenwood Publishing Group] 1996 – Page 144


The Baath party had its origins in European fascism and Arab nationalism…

http://books.google.com/books?id=1wOv3enW1ccC&pg=PA144

The politics of intelligence and American wars with Iraq – Page 21 – Ofira Seliktar – 2008 – 214 pages


Drawing on a large volume of newly available research on “generic fascism,” a number of experts pointed out … Ba’ath Party of Syria and Iraq as conceived by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Bitar combined both Nazi and communist elements. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=vd54vdSGMMgC&pg=PA21

A Middle East reader, compiled by Irene L. Gendzier, Pegasus, 1969, page 161



Aflaq spent his holidays in France, with Salah al Bitar. He came back to Syria full of admiration for the works of Alfred Rosenberg, the theorist of Nazi racism, and in particular for “The Myth of the Twentieth Century, which he had read in Grosclaud’s translation. He thought at the time that Hitler’s Germany, by contrast with the communist countries, had succeeded in achieving the perfect synthesis of nationalism and socialism.”
http://books.google.com/books?id=QsNAAAAAIAAJ&dq=rosenberg


Eric Rouleau… Futhermore, when power in Iraq was seized by pro-German nationalists in the coup of Rashid ‘Ali al-Gilani, ‘Aflaq formed s committee which assured the new regime of its full support

http://books.google.com/books?id=LzfSAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA166

The Ba’th and the creation of modern Syria‎ – Page 15 David Roberts – Political Science – [Croom Helm] 1987 – 182 pages



The Birth of Ba’thist Ideology… The theory of ‘Greater Syria’… Sa’adeh visited Germany and certainly had contact with the National Socialist and Fascist regimes. The Ba’th, or at least ‘Aflaq, shared these ideas to some extent. It is not too long a step from ‘Gross-Deutchland’ to ‘Greater Syria.’

Since then, of course, the Ba’th has parted with the PPS and indeed banned it, but it has quietly absorbed its message…

http://books.google.com/books?id=Ix2NAAAAMAAJ&dq=germany
http://books.google.com/books?id=Ix2NAAAAMAAJ&dq=fascist

CNN, March 21, 2003

Baath Party is a mishmash of socialism and Arabism.
http://transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0303/21/se.13.html

The politics of intelligence and American wars with Iraq – Page 21 – Ofira Seliktar – 2008 – 214 pages


Drawing on a large volume of newly available research on “generic fascism,” a number of experts pointed out … Ba’ath Party of Syria and Iraq as conceived by Michel Aflaq and Salah al-Bitar combined both Nazi and communist elements. …

http://books.google.com/books?id=vd54vdSGMMgC&pg=PA21

Syria: Ballots Or Bullets?: Democracy, Islamism, and Secularism in the Levant, Carsten Wieland, 2006, pp. 102-3



Sati al-Husri (1882-1968), the most infuelncial pan-Arab ideologue… He admired Fichte, Hegel, and Herder, and his key ideological role in the Arab world earned him the nickname of “the Arab Fichte.”
[p. 103]
The strongest influence of pan-Arabists was first witnessed in Iraq in the 1920 and 1930 when Hitler rose to power in Germany. In 1941, Husri supported a fascist coup in Baghdad…

The main ideologue of the subsequent Baath Party in Syria was himself a Christian (however, he reportedly converted to Islam shortly before his death…
Michel Aflaq was born in 1910 in Damascus and went to Paris to study philosophy at the Sorbonne University. There he found the idea of Arabness in Western literature, as had many others before him. He viewed Islam as an essential part of the Arab socio-cultural heritage…

http://books.google.com/books?id=uOMp58pfdkoC&pg=PA102

“Saddam’s Brain,” The Weekly Standard Nov 1, 2002, Vol. 8, No. 09 by David Brooks



From the November 11, 2002 issue: The ideology behind the thuggery.



MICHEL AFLAQ was born in Damascus in 1910, a Greek Orthodox Christian. He won a scholarship to study philosophy at the Sorbonne sometime between 1928 and 1930 (biographies differ), and there he studied Marx, Nietzsche, Lenin, Mazzini, and a range of German nationalists and proto-Nazis. Aflaq became active in Arab student politics with his countryman Salah Bitar, a Sunni Muslim. Together, they were thrilled by the rise of Hitler and the Nazi party, but they also came to admire the organizational structure Lenin had created within the Russian Communist party.

http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/001/837uvzrs.asp

American Government and Politics Today 2008: The Essentials, by Barbara A. Bardes, Mack C. Shelley, Steffen W. Schmidt, [Cengage Learning] 2008, [ISBN 0495503258, 9780495503255], p. 18

Although Baathists are often referred to as Arab nationalists, Baath ideology goes beyond pan-Arab nationalism and Baath ideology actually views the Arabs as a kind of master race. Baathism glorifies constant struggle, the ideological similarity between Baathism and fascism is quite striking.
http://books.google.com/books?id=NIrspBw3lNMC&pg=PA1




al-Muthanna Club & al-Futuwwa (in Iraq)

(Saib [Sami] Shawkat & Al-Sabawi)

‘Farhud’ massacre – massgrave

Highlights:



* Importance of education in the fascist interwar era.



* ‘Hitler Youth’ type.



* Participated in Nurmberg’s Nazi Youth march.



* Relations with leadership of Hitler Youth.



* al-Muthanna Club’s Sami Shawkat’s hateful [xenophobia and] Nazism.



* S. Shawkat’s indoctrination of youth into ‘dying for Arabism.’



* (Sami’s brother) Naji Shawkat’s Nazism.



* Participation in the Farhud pogrom (massacre) in 1941, Baghdad.




Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East: Volume 2 – Reeva S. Simon, Philip Mattar, Richard W. Bulliet – 1996 – 2182 pages


… to paramilitary youth groups strongly reminiscent of the Hitler Youth of Nazi Germany. In Ba’thist Iraq, the futuwwa is one of three paramilitary youth organizations that belong to the state-run General Federation of Iraqi Youth. 
http://books.google.com/books?id=KE8YAAAAIAAJ&q=futuwwa+hitler


Independent Iraq, 1932-1958: a study in Iraqi politics, Majid Khadduri, [Oxford University Press] 1960, p. 173



He also invited the King to send a Futuwwa delegation to Nuremberg to attend the parade of the Nazi Party convention in September 1938. A delegation of thirty members of the Futuwwa was subsequently sent, received by the …

http://books.google.com/books?id=uh4xAAAAIAAJ&q=futuwwa


Moreover, when Baldur von Schirach, the Reich Youth Leader, stopped in Baghdad on his return flight from Tehran in the autumn of 1937, he had an audience with King Ghazi and suggested that he should pay attention to the Futuwwa movement …
http://books.google.com/books?id=uh4xAAAAIAAJ&q=A+delegation


Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Volume 2 – Israel Gutman – 1990 – 1905 pages – Page 716



In 1938 the Al-Futuwwa youth organization sent a delegate to the Nuremberg Nazi party rally, and in turn hosted the Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach in Baghdad. In 1939 all students attending secondary schools, as well as their teachers, were obliged to join..

http://books.google.com/books?&id=1SoYAAAAIAAJ&dq=Al-Futuwwa


Simon, Reeva. “The Teaching of History in Iraq Before the Rashid Ali Coup of 1941.” Middle Eastern Studies 22, no.1 (January 1986); 37-51



The Iraqis, like the French, the Germans, and the Japanese during the interwar period, used their schools to inculcate nationalism. The curriculum was published and instituted… emphasized Arab nationalism and Iraq’s important role in a pan-Arab union…. accelerated recruitment by the Iraqi ministry of Education of Syrian and Palestinian teachers…
From 1920 until 1941, the three men instrumental in foreign educational policy and in impanting a nationalist ideology in the schools were Muhammad Fadhi al-Jamali, Sami Shawkat and, most important, Sati al-Husri.

[…]

Sami Shawkat, a physician not a pedagogue, with little interest in Iraqi education beyond instilling the militarist sprit in the schools, is most noted for his lectures to students on the ‘Profession of Death’, telling them that the most important thing for them to learn was how to kill and how to die. He helped to institute military instruction in the schools and promoted an Iraqi Hitler Youth-type paramilitary youth organization, the Futuwwah, included German as the third language in the secondary schools, and sent student…
http://www.jstor.org/pss/4283095


Republic of fear: the politics of modern Iraq – Page 179 – Kanan Makiya – 1998 – 323 pages


The Muthanna Club, along with its affiliate the Palestine Defence League and the Futuwwa organization, … Shawkat carried a letter from the Mufti to von Papen congratulating Hitler and referring to the struggle against “the democracies …

http://books.google.com/books?id=frDO73fi83IC&pg=PA179


Sovereign creations: pan-Arabism and political order in Syria and Iraq, Malik Mufti, 1996 [286 pages], pp. 28-29



The architect of Iraq’s education policy was Sati’ al-Husri… “German nationalism, with its emphasis upon language and history as unifying factors, was the perfect model for Arab nationalism…

In accordance with this nationalist agenda, Husri’s educational policy sought to instill a sense of common identity in the Iraqi people by stressing Arab history and culture, promoting standard Arabic over regional dialects, and trying to suppress particularistic identities such as those of the Shi’is, Kurds, Christians, and Jews.
After 1923… Husri, along with his successors Fadhil Jamail and Sami Shawkat pressed ahead with their militaristic brand of national education, importing in the process large numebers of foreigners (particularly Palestinians) to teach Arab history and culture.

[…]
Despite some trepidation at the xenophobic extremes to which Husri and Sami Shawkat often went, Faisal and his advisers appreciated their efforts at laying the ideological foundations for Hashemite pan-Arabism.

http://books.google.com/books?id=px20DEwGH6cC&pg=PA28


Pan-Arabism’s Legacy of Confrontation with Iran
By: Dr. Kaveh Farrokh





…Arab racism against Iranians…


Satia Al-Husri spawned a whole generation of men who advocated violence. One example is Sami Shawkat who is famous for his 1933 speech “Sina’at al-Mawt” (manufacture of death) in which he rationalizes mass violence and war as the way to achieve Arab aspirations. Tragically, this speech was widely distributed in Arab schools and in Iraq in particular. It is interesting that Shawkat teaches that “force is the soil which sprouts the seeds of truth”. Although not widely known, Shawkat was a main force in the organization of the Futuwwa Youth Organization – a movement modeled directly after the Nazi Hitler Youth Movement. The Futuwwa set the pace for future Arab chauvinist movements, such as the B’aath party of Iraq and today’s followers of Bin Laden. It is interesting to note that Shawkat’s ideas became somewhat too hot to handle, even for the pan-Arabists – Satia Al-Husri later disowned Sami Shawkat.


It is worth noting that Sami Shawkat’s brother, Naji, who by 1941 was a member of the Arab committee in Iraq (which had absorbed the Futuwwa), gave Franz von Papen (a high ranking German official of Nazi Germany in 1941) a letter which actually congratulated Hitler for the brutality that he inflicted upon the Jews.

http://www.iran-heritage.org/interestgroups/history-article2.htm

History Matters: Past as Prologue in Building Democracy in Iraq by E Davis – 2005


During the 1930s, Pan-Arabists developed proto-fascist organizations such as the al-Muthanna Club and its al-Futuwwa movement, and in June 1941 they participated in an attack on Baghdad’s Jewish community.
http://www.fpri.org/orbis/4902/davis.historymattersiraq.pdf

The Farhud [United States Holocaust Museum]

[…]

The outbreak of mob violence against Baghdad Jewry known as the Farhud (Farhud is an Arabic term best translated as “pogrom” or “violent dispossession”) erupted on June 1, 1941. It was a turning point in the history of the Jews in Iraq.


In Baghdad the results of this policy were much more severe. On the afternoon of June 1, 1941, when the Regent and his entourage returned to Baghdad and British troops surrounded the city, the Jews believed that the danger from the pro-Nazi regime had passed. They ventured out to celebrate the traditional Jewish harvest festival holiday of Shavuot. Riots broke out, targeting the Jews of Baghdad. These riots, known as the Farhud, lasted for two days, ending on June 2, 1941.


Iraqi soldiers and policemen who had supported Rashid Ali al-Gailani’s coup d’etat in April and Futtuwa youths who were sympathetic to the Axis incited and led the riots. Unlike in previous incidents, rioters focused on killing. Many civilians in Baghdad and Bedouins from the city’s outskirts joined the rioters, taking part in the violence and helping themselves to a share in the booty. During the two days of violence, rioters murdered between 150 and 180 Jews, injured 600 others, and raped an undetermined number of women. They also looted some 1,500 stores and homes. The community leaders estimated that about 2,500 families — 15 percent of the Jewish community in Baghdad — suffered directly from the pogrom. According to the official report of the commission investigating the incident, 128 Jews were killed, 210 were injured, and over 1,500 businesses and homes were damaged. Rioting ended at midday on Monday, June 2, 1941, when Iraqi troops entered Baghdad, killed some hundreds of the mob in the streets and reestablished order in Baghdad.

http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10007277

Iraq [Jewish Virtual Library

Fascism and Antisemitism (1933–1941)

[…]
Iraqi Jews did not know the kind of *antisemitism that prevailed in some Christian states of Europe. The first attempt to copy modern European antisemitic libels was made in 1924 by Sādiq Rasūl al-Qādirī, a former officer in the White Russian Army. He published his views, particularly that of worldwide conspiracy, in a Baghdadi newspaper. The Jewish response in its own weekly newspaper, al-Misbah, compelled al-Qādirī to apologize, although he later published his antisemitic memoirs.

At that time the press drew a clear dividing line between Judaism and Zionism. This line became blurred in the 1930s, along with the demand to remove Jews from the genealogical tree of the Semitic peoples. This anti-Jewish trend coincided with Faysal’s death in 1933, which brought about a noticeable change for the Jewish community. His death also came at the same time as the Assyrian massacre, which created a climate of insecurity among the minorities. Iraqi Jewry at that time had been subject to threats and invectives emanating not only from extremist elements, but also from official state institutions as well. Dr. Sāmī Shawkat, a high official in the Ministry of Education in the pre-war years and for a while its director general, was the head of “al-Futuwwa,” an imitation of Hitler’s Youth. In one of his addresses, “The Profession of Death,” he called on Iraqi youth to adopt the way of life of Nazi Fascists. In another speech he branded the Jews as the enemy from within, who should be treated accordingly. In another, he praised Hitler and Mussolini for eradicating their internal enemies (the Jews). Syrian and Palestinian teachers often supported Shawkat in his preaching.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/judaica/ejud_0002_0010_0_09571.html


Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism – Page 107 – David M. Rosen – 2005 – 199 pages
for boys between the ages of fifteen and twenty, they were also modeled on Hitler Youth. … Iraq he helped set up an Arab Committee to promote collaboration between Iraq and the Nazis and brought the Iraqi al-Futuwwa under its control.


http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA107


Republic of fear: the politics of modern Iraq By Kanan Makiya, university of California press [page 178]

The pan-Arab government also sponsored the Futuwwa Youth organization, modelled after the Hitler Youth movement.
http://books.google.com/books?id=MBSNs4sIYn0C&pg=PA178


Learning Not to Love Saddam by Paul Berman, New York Times, March 31, 2003

Modern totalitarianism arose in Europe in the years after World War I. It took different forms — Fascist, Communist and Nazi. But the movements shared a number of traits: apocalyptic and paranoid ideologies, a total police state, a taste for murder. Other versions of that same totalitarianism arose in Arab and Muslim countries in precisely those years.

One of the Muslim variations eventually emerged as the Islamist radicalism of Osama bin Laden, the Taliban and other movements. A second version evolved into Saddam Hussein’s Baath dictatorship. The European inspiration for those movements is not too hard to detect, especially in the case of the Baath, which got started in 1943 in an atmosphere of ardent sympathy for the fascist Axis.

Kanan Makiya, an expatriate Iraqi intellectual and a main author of the transition report, described in his book “Republic of Fear” how these European movements influenced Islamic radicalism philosophically and organizationally. There was, for instance, the model of the Hitler Youth for the pan-Arabist Futuwwa Youth of the 1930’s, which, Mr. Makiya pointed out, pioneered a paramilitary culture “as if presaging the Baath militas” in later years.

http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/31/opinion/31BERM.html?pagewanted=all

Die Welt des Islams‎ – Page 136 – Religion – 1985

The Futuwwa-movement in Iraq was a youth-organization, not a political party. The Futuwwah was an official youth movement which comprised all students of the higher class of high school.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&dq=Futuwwah
A delegation of the Futuwwah participated in the march of the Hitler-Jugend at the Parteitag in Nuremberg in September 1938.
http://books.google.com/books?id=bQcsAAAAIAAJ&q=hitler-jugend

Armies of the young: child soldiers in war and terrorism, by David M. Rosen, 2005, p. 106
The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East.

http://books.google.com/books?id=zQYQ0tho6mAC&pg=PA106

Rethinking nationalism in the Arab Middle East by James P. Jankowski, I. Gershoni – 1997 – History – 372 pages, P. 18


Pan-Arab radicalism was expressed in diverse forms in 1930s Iraq. In 1935 the “Muthana Club” was established in Baghdad and rapidly became a forum for the educated from all parts of the Arab world and a center for the dissemination of Arab nationalist propaganda. Nationalist radicalization was also evident in the formation, in the late 1930s, of s paramilitary youth movement [al-futuwwa] modeled on fascist and Nazi youth organizations, sponsored by the government and officially instituted in Iraqi schools

http://books.google.com/books?id=_a1NNyZUXAgC&pg=PA18

Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East, Volume 2, Reeva S. Simon, Philip Mattar, Richard W. Bulliet, Macmillan Reference USA, 1996, pp. 686-882

[p. 686]
In another context, the term has been used in Iraq, first in the 1930s and again since the Ba th party takeover in 1968, to refer to paramilitary youth groups strongly reminiscent of the Hitler Youth of Nazi Germany. In Ba’thist Iraq, …
http://books.google.com/books?id=KE8YAAAAIAAJ&dq=hitler+youth

[p. 882]
the schools by Sayi al-Husri, Muhammad… al-JAMAIL, and Sami SHAWKAT throught the 1920 and 1930s, was supported by Faisal’s heir, GHAZI IBN FAISAL, who ruled from 1933 until 1939. The creation of pan-Arab clubs, such as al-Muthanna and the FUTUWWA youth movement, made Baghdad a center for pan-Arabism and a haven for exiled Palestinians, led by Jerusalem mufti (Muslim religious..

http://books.google.com/books?id=KE8YAAAAIAAJ&dq=futuwwa




Najjada [Najjada, Najjadeh]

(Nasuli)



Highlights:



* Admired Nazism/fascism.



* “Arabism above all.”





Nazism in Syria and Lebanon By Nordbruch Goetz, p. 54


Muslim schools that were directed by the Maqasid Islamic Charitable Association provided Najada a pool of potential members. As a Muslim ‘twin’ to the Phalangists, as the organization was often described, Najjada adopted a pan-Arab nationalist vision, calling for a suppression of all foreign influences. The ambivalent relation of such pan- Arab concepts to ethnocentric and racial nationalism became visible in its slogan ‘Arabism above all’ (al-‘uruba fawqa al-jami’).

http://books.google.com/books?id=iAWBkDAv4TkC&pg=PA54

Colonial citizens: republican rights, paternal privilege, and gender in French Syria and Lebanon, by Elizabeth Thompson, [Columbia University Press] 2000 [ISBN 0231106610, 97802311066103]

…admired the youth groups and physical discipline at the Berlin Olympics, and their Muslim counterparts, the Najjada (Helpers), promoted by Muhi al-Din Nasuli, a leader of the Muslim scouting movement and newspaper publisher… the pan-Arabism of the Najjada… of… Lebanese groups… Since at least 1933, newspapers had been printing Hitler’s speeches and excerpts from Mem Kampf. Hitler and Mussolini were viewed in both Syria and Lebanon as models of strong statebuilders… criticized “moral chaos” in public life and adopted the motto “Arabism Above All” on his newspaper’s masthead, which also printed glowing accounts of German youth’s support of Hitler…

http://books.google.com/books?id=B9fruGejwmUC&pg=PA193

http://www.ciaonet.org/book/the01/the01_11.pdf

[CIA document THE CURRENT SITUATION IN PALESTINE, ORE 49, 20 October 1947]



There are two para-military Arab organizations, the Futuwwa and the Najjada, both of which are more or less controlled by the Arab higher Committe under the leadership of the Grand Mufti.
http://www.foia.cia.gov/browse_docs_full.asp




Handcshar SS Muslim Nazi units [Bosnians, Albanians]




Highlights:



* Three divisions of Nazi Muslim socldiers:
1) The Waffen SS 13th Handschar (“Knife”).
2.) The 23rd Kama (“Dagger”).
3.) The 21st Skenderbeg.


* Grand Mufti inspired the “holy warriors” [Jihad for Nazi victory].



* Some of these ex-Nazi soldiers came to fight with Arab Muslim “brethren” against Israel in 1948.




Cairo to Damascus – Pages 419-420 – John Roy Carlson – [READ BOOK] 2007 – 520 pages



The Mufti also organized an Arab Brigade and a Moslem Legion to fight side by side with the Nazis. An Arab leader accepted a commission as colonel in the Wehrmacht. Turning
ing to large Moslem populations in Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Albania, the Mufti with the help of Pavelich, the Croatian quisling, recruited substantial numbers of Moslem Holy Warriors who fought as the Waffen SS, and the “Free Arabia” movement. the Mufti visited these troops frequently praying with them, exhorting them to fight for Allah.

http://books.google.com/books?id=I-nzRJpb5CIC&pg=PA419


“FASCIST MUSLIM GROUP EXPECTED TO LOOT TEL AVIV IN 1948,” by Seth J. Frantzman [San Francisco Sentinal, 10 May, 2008]

On a pleasant Thursday in December 1948, Emilio Traubner, a correspondent for The Palestine Post, found himself near Abu Kabir, not far from Jaffa. Trenches and expended cartridges were strewn about, reminders of the fighting between units of the Irgun and local Arab forces that had taken place there seven months previously. There was a large Arab villa from where Traubner recovered a diary. It turned out to be the daily record of Yusuf Begovic of Pale, a town near Sarajevo in modern-day Bosnia-Herzegovina. In it Begovic had described his activities as a cook for the “Arab Army of Liberation.”

Traubner described who Begovic had been serving: “35 Yugoslav Muslims who had a good reason to expect to be among the first to occupy and loot Tel Aviv, were part of a group of some thousands who came to the Middle East to join the jihad against Israel.”

What were Yugoslav Muslims doing in Jaffa in 1948? How had they managed to get themselves all the way to the Holy Land? What had motivated them? Who had recruited them? What was the Bosnian or Albanian connection to the Palestinians, if there was one?

There was a Bosnian connection: Haj Amin al-Husseini, the mufti of Jerusalem, had been in Bosnia in the 1940s. Had he recruited these men? What had become of them?

It turned out that in 2005 a Bosnian had given an interview in Lebanon to a Croatian newspaper and claimed to have fought in the 1948 war. The story began to crystallize.

The Long Shadow of Haj Amin

In October 1937, Haj Amin al-Husseini, mufti of Jerusalem and leader of the Arab Higher Committee, was hiding from the British authorities in the Haram al-Sharif, the holy sanctuary atop the Temple Mount in Jerusalem. On October 13, disguised as a Beduin, he fled to Lebanon via Jaffa. In Lebanon he received sanctuary from the French mandatory authorities but he fled again with the outbreak of war in 1939. This time he made his way to Baghdad disguised as a woman. In Baghdad in 1940 and 1941 he increased his contacts with Germany, offering to aid the Nazis in return for their help in gaining independence for the Arab states. The Italians helped him enter Turkey, and then he made his way to Rome on October 11. He met with Mussolini and then with Hitler on November 28. After the failure of various schemes to create an Arab military unit he eventually settled for recruiting Muslim volunteers to aid the Nazis from the Balkans, Bosnia and eventually Kosovo.

In speaking to potential recruits, Husseini stressed the connections they had to the Muslim nation fighting the British throughout the world: “The hearts of all Muslims must today go out to our Islamic brothers in Bosnia, who are forced to endure a tragic fate. They are being persecuted by the Serbian and communist bandits, who receive support from England and the Soviet Union… They are being murdered, their possessions are robbed and their villages are burned. England and its allies bear a great accountability before history for mishandling and murdering Europe’s Muslims, just as they have done in the Arabic lands and in India.”

Three divisions of Muslim soldiers were recruited: The Waffen SS 13th Handschar (”Knife”) and the 23rd Kama (”Dagger”) and the 21st Skenderbeg. The Skenderbeg was an Albanian unit of around 4,000 men, and the Kama was composed of Muslims from Bosnia, containing 3,793 men at its peak. The Handschar was the largest unit, around 20,000 Bosnian Muslim volunteers. According to the Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, “These Muslim volunteer units, called Handschar, were put in Waffen SS units, fought Yugoslav partisans in Bosnia and carried out police and security duties in Hungary. They participated in the massacre of civilians in Bosnia and volunteered to join in the hunt for Jews in Croatia.” Part of the division also escorted Hungarian Jews from the forced labor in mine in Bor on their way back to Hungary. The division was also employed against Serbs, who as Orthodox Christians were seen by the Bosnian Muslims as enemies.

The Handschar division surrendered to the British army on May 8, 1945. As many as 70,000 Bosnian Muslim POWs and their families were moved by the British army to Taranto in Italy. The creation of Marshal Tito’s Yugoslavia at the end of the war meant that former Bosnian Muslim volunteers in the German SS units could not return home for fear of prosecution or internment. George Lepre, a scholar on the history of the Handschar and author of Himmler’s Bosnian Division: The Waffen-SS Handschar Division 1943-1945 describes their fate: “Those Bosnians who elected to remain in the camps eventually found asylum in countries throughout the Western and Arab worlds. Many of those who settled in the Middle East later fought in Palestine against the new Israeli state.”

But first they had to get to the Middle East.

The formation of the Bosnian unit in 1947

The Bosnian Muslims, usually referred to as “Yugoslavs” in period newspaper accounts as well as in intelligence reports, remained in DP camps in Italy until 1947, when it was reported in The Palestine Post on April 18 that there was a “request from the Syrian government for the transfer of 8,000 Bosnian Moslem refugees at present in Italy. Yugoslav quarters here say that the Arab League has written to all Arab states, urging them to assist these Moslem DPs, and that some financial help has already been received. Yugoslav officials say that they too want these 8,000 Moslems back, as they are the Handschar Division of the German Wehrmacht which surrendered to the British… The Yugoslavs state that they view with the gravest concern the possibility of the transfer of this group to the Middle East.”

By December 1947 a nucleus of former Handschar officers had made their way to Syria and were beginning to reconstitute their unit in Damascus. A report by Israel Baer in the Post noted that “the latest recruits to the Syrian army are members of the Bosnian Waffen SS… It is reported that they are directing a school for commando tactics for the Syrian Army.”

No doubt the fledgling Syrian army which had been born in 1946 was in need of officers and trainers with experience. Emilio Traubner, writing on December 3, 1947, noted that the International Refugee Organization (IRO) was even convinced to fund the travel of Bosnian Muslims from Italy to the Middle East so that they could find homes since they refused to be repatriated to Yugoslavia.

In January 1948 Arab agents were working to recruit Bosnians for the fight in Palestine. On February 2, it was reported that 25 Bosnian Muslims had arrived in Beirut and were moving to Damascus to join 40 other Bosnians already there. A report by Jon Kimche on February 4 further noted that up to 3,500 were being transferred to Syria to fight alongside Fawzi Kaukji’s Arab Liberation Army (ALA) in its invasion of Palestine. On March 14 a party of 67 Albanians, 20 Yugoslavs and 21 Croats led by an Albanian named Derwish Bashaco arrived by boat in Beirut from Italy. They were hosted by the Palestine Arab Bureau and made their way to Damascus to join the ALA. In the first week of April another 200 Bosnians arrived in Beirut.

A lengthy report by Claire Neikind on March 2 described the procedure by which Arab agents were recruiting volunteers among the DPs in Italy. Men between 22 and 32 were sought and in return they would receive free passage to Beirut and their families would receive maintenance. According to Neikind, 300 men had already arrived and 90 Croatian Ustashi were also making there way. Fifty-seven were sent to Amman. Between December 1 and February 20 a total of 106 were sent to Syria. Neikind noted that “as soon as their families are settled, they enter Arab military service.”

If one accepts merely the low totals from newspaper accounts it appears that there were at least 520 Bosnians, 67 Albanians and 111 Croatians in Syria or Beirut, as well as 135 Bosnians on their way to Egypt and 57 Bosnians in Jordan. Thus 890 volunteers from Yugoslavia and Albania were in the Middle East by April 1948, before Israel’s declaration of independence on May 15, 1948.

Upon arrival the volunteers found their way to a camp at Katana, a military base west of Damascus that the Syrian army had provided for use by the Arab Liberation Army being assembled to invade Palestine. Here they met their commander, Fawzi Kaukji for the first time. Kaukji, 58, was a former Ottoman soldier who had fought in the Arab Revolt. Hagana intelligence estimated as many as 4,000 volunteers had joined his army.

In December of 2005, Hassan Haidar Diab, a journalist in Bosnia, was able to locate Kemal Rustomovic, a Bosnian who had served with the Yugoslav volunteers. He claimed to have been a member of the Arab Salvation Army where 150 of his fellow Bosnians served under a Bosnian officer named Fuad Sefkobegovic.

The Role of the Bosnians in the War of Independence

Since the fall of 1947 Arab forces under Abdel Khader Husseini and other locals had harassed Jewish traffic and supplies moving from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. A mixed Bosnian-Arab unit of the ALA had been dispatched to aid in the siege of Jerusalem and this unit found itself embroiled in the battle for Castel between April 3 and 8, 1948. This battle was part of the Hagana’s Operation Nahshon which was intended to relieve the siege of Jerusalem. It is not clear what became of the Bosnians who fought at Castel. Some may have retired to Ramallah, where it was reported on April 16 that Muslim foreigners including Yugoslavs had taken over the best hotels and “molested” the local population.

The next battle that the Bosnian units participated in was at Jaffa between April 25 and May 5. Jaffa had been allotted to the Arab state in the UN partition plan, but it was surrounded by territory allotted to the Jewish state. The battle began when the Irgun launched an attack on the city. According to the Hagana, there were 400 “Yugoslavs” and 200 Iraqis defending Jaffa. On April 28, Michel Issa, the Christian Arab commander of the Ajnadin Battalion, received orders from Kaukji to move from the Jerusalem foothills to relieve the siege of Jaffa. On the same day, Hagana intelligence noted that there were 60 “Yugoslavs” among the defenders of Jaffa. Issa arrived in Jaffa on April 29 ; the commander of Jaffa, Maj. Adil Najmuddin, deserted the city on May 1, leaving Issa and his Yugoslavs. According to Issa’s telegram to Kaukji, “Adil left [the] city by sea with all [the] Iraqis and Yugoslavs.” Prior to their departure the Yugoslavs had been billeted at local homes and their unit even included a cook.

Kemal Rustomovic recalled in his interview that he had first been at Nablus, then Jaffa and finally at Jenin. Between the evacuation of the Yugoslavs by sea from Jaffa and their reunion with the ALA, the State of Israel was born on May 15, 1948. On the same day five Arab armies invaded Israel and the war became much wider.

The ALA became a disorganized and largely spent force by the time it saw fighting again around Nazareth again in July. During the fighting in the North, Kaukji’s army of 2,500 men was reduced to only 800 and it was driven from Nazareth into northern Galilee. Rustomovic was one of these men according to his interview. The Post reported that the ALA still included “Yugoslavs.” On July 18 the Post reported that the British government’s intelligence had acted to “systematically sabotage [the] Palestine partition scheme” and provided as evidence the fact that England was aware of the presence of Bosnian volunteers in Syria.

During the fighting in October the IDF conquered the entire Galilee and parts of Southern Lebanon. A report on November 1, detailing the capture of the Galilee, noted that some “Yugoslavs” had been captured during the fighting that had driven the ALA and the Lebanese army from Palestine and actually found the IDF in Lebanon.

The Bosnians and the 1948 war, strange bedfellows?

It is not known what became of the Bosnians who served with the Arab forces in the 1948 war. Rustomovic, who was born in the village of Kuti in central Bosnia in 1928, joined the Lebanese army in 1950. He served his adopted country for 30 years, married a local woman and had seven daughters and five sons with her. He was granted Lebanese citizenship, unlike the Palestine refugees who fled to Lebanon, and retired from the army in 1980. According to him, none of the Bosnians who had served in the SS ever returned to Yugoslavia. Some ended up in the US, Australia and Canada. It is assumed that some also settled in Syria or elsewhere in the Middle East. Today many would be in their 80s and 90s and it is doubtful that many of them survive.

In the 1990s during the Balkan wars, Arabs would journey to the Balkans to participate in war between Bosnians and Serbs. In a strange twist they would be repaying the debt incurred when 900 or more Bosnian Muslims gave up their homes and past to come to the Middle East to serve the Muslim Arab cause. The involvement of these Bosnians may be seen as an early version of the linkage of Muslim conflicts throughout the world. This has gained increased exposure lately due to the involvement of foreign Muslim volunteers in the Algerian, Lebanese, Kashmiri, Sudanese and Afghani conflicts among others.

The writer is in a doctoral program at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and his MA thesis was on the Christian Arabs in the 1948 war.

http://www.sanfranciscosentinel.com/?p=12613



Admiration & worshipping



Highlights:



* Glorification.



* “The whole Arab youth is enthused by Adolf Hitler.”



* Islamicizing Adolf Hitler: ‘Abu Ali,’ ‘Muhammad Haidar.’



* Admirations till today.




Nazism in Syria and Lebanon. The Ambivalence of the German Option, 1933-1945 by Götz Nordbruch, Routledge, 2009, 209 pp.
Reviewed by Wolfgang G. Schwanitz




Hitler in the Levant: How Arabs Reacted to the Third Reich in Syria and Lebanon



The whole Arab youth is enthused by Adolf Hitler, wrote Kamil Muruwwa, the young editor of the Beirut paper An-Nida’, to the German Foreign Minister in Berlin. The year after Hitler came to power, Muruwwa translated Mein Kampf from English into Arabic and published it in daily installments in An-Nida’. Now he wants to edit the series as a book. But for this, he explains in his letter, he needs an additional 600 Marks. Therefore he is asking the German government for financial support in this endeavor.

http://www.jcpa.org/JCPA/Templates/ShowPage.asp?DBID=1&TMID=111&LNGID=1&FID=388&PID=0&IID=3235


The beast reawakens – Page 122 – Martin A. Lee – Routledge, 1999 [ISBN:0-415-92546-0] – 560 pages


Even though he loathed Arabs (he once described them as “lacquered half-apes who ought to be whipped”), Hitler was nonetheless the idol of the paramilitary Green Shirts, Egypt’s indigenous proto-fascist moevemnt, which referred to him as Abu Ali, the “good fighter.”

http://books.google.com/books?id=SX4B7pNG3W8C&pg=PA122


The dream palace of the Arabs: a generation’s odyssey Fouad Ajami – [Random House, Inc.] 1999 – 344 pages p. 78


…a popular couplet at the time taunted the French about Hitler’s victory:
Ya France, hiddi W’irhali Ijaki Hitler, Abu Ali,

Oh France, dismantle and be gone

After you is Hitler, Abu Ali
“Abu Ali” was the popular name given to neighborhood toughs, an endearing nickname. The German wreaking havoc on Europe was doing to the colonial masters …

http://books.google.com/books?id=z1Yf1rEwq28C&pg=PT78


Encyclopedia of the Holocaust: Volume 2 – Israel Gutman – 1990 – 1905 pages – Page 716



The German legation acquired an Iraqi daily, Al-Alim al-Arabi, which, beginning in October 1933 , serialized Hitler’s MEIN KAMPF, and published propaganda pieces praising the fascist regimes. Members of the intelligentsia and army officers were invited to Germany as guests of the Nazi party. Radical nationalist organizations inspired by fascist ideology were established such as…

http://books.google.com/books?&id=1SoYAAAAIAAJ&dq=Al-Futuwwa

The case for Israel – Alan M. Dershowitz – [John Wiley and Sons] 2003 – Biography & Autobiography – 264 pages – Page 54

… consul in Jerusalem that “the Muslims inside and outside Palestine welcome the new …
The sawstika became a welcome symbol among many Palestinians.
http://books.google.com/books?id=Dunx_i1P6fMC&pg=PA54

Prevent World War III. Society for the Prevention of World War III (New York, N.Y.) – 1959 – Page 41



Abu Ali, the affectionate name given to Adolf Hitler by his admirers in Iraq, has also returned to popularity. Incidentally, the name Abu Ali means “father of Ali,” ie, father of Rashid Ali. Photographs of Hitler are appearing again.

http://books.google.com/books?&id=ckHTAAAAMAAJ&dq=father+of+ali

Waiting for the dawn: an autobiography – Atallah Mansour – 1975 – 155 pages – Page 15


… and from time to time we began hearing unfavourable , comments on the British, predicting their defeat at the phands of ‘Abu Ali’ — Hitler. (The name Abu Ali normally I indicates admiration for a powerful leader. …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=6IFtAAAAMAAJ&dq=Abu+Ali


A Genealogy of Evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad – Page 97-98 – David Patterson – [Cambridge University Press] 2010 – 308 pages [ISBN 0521132614, 9780521132619]



“The close and at times active relationship that developed between Nazi Germany and sections of the Arab leadership, in the years from 1933 to 1945,” writes Lewis, … Party. Its leader Antun Saadeh (1904–1949) called himself the Fuhrer of the [p. 98] Syrian nation, among them Hitler became known as Abu Ali (in Egypt he was called Muhammad Haidar). The banner of the PPS displayed a stastika on a black-and-white background. Timmerman notes that this Islamic admiration of the Nazis extended into later years, when Muslims throughout the Middle East were naming their children after Adolf Hitler…


http://books.google.com/books?id=lMLmK-fmf8kC&pg=PA97

The closed circle: an interpretation of the Arabs – David Pryce-Jones – [Ivan R. Dee] 2002
[ISBN 1566634407, 9781566634403] – Page 201




Preposterously, Hitler himself was Islamicized on the radio and by word of mouth as “Abu Ali,” and in Egypt at least was referred to as “Muhammad Haidar.” As such, he was prayed for in every village, …

http://books.google.com/books?&id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&dq=muhammad+haidar

The Nazi Connection to Islamic Terrorism: Adolf Hitler and Haj Amin Al-Husseini, by Chuck Morse – 2003 – Page 31 – 186 pages



In Heaven Allah, on Earth Hitler.” Many Arab intellectuals and revisionists now explain this affinity the Arabs had for Hitler and Nazism with the … The Arabs would go so far as to Islamicize Hitler’s name rendering it as Abu Ali,…

http://books.google.com/books?id=HGkthBwbNg8C&pg=PA31


The closed circle: an interpretation of the Arabs – David Pryce-Jones – 2002 – Page 194



To this day no Arab has written anything like a scholary study of the Holocaust; and the Arab expression of admiration for it have been frequent…

http://books.google.com/books?id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&q=mein+kampf

[pp. 199-200]

Delegations of Syrian and Iraqis attended Nuremberg Party rallies. More than one Arab translated Hitler’s Mein Kampf into [p. 200] Arabic, and among them was Yunis el-Sabawi, an Iraqi and close associate of Rashid Ali and later to be hanged by the British.

http://books.google.com/books?id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&q=mein+kampf

http://books.google.com/books?id=VCQXAQAAIAAJ&q=yunis


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