Anti-European, anti-American JIHAD in 1947 (Sep. 27 & October 12/13
First, the Swedish Consulate was attacked in Sep. Then the Polish Consulate on Oct. 12 as well as the US Consulate General in Jerusalem was bombed shortly after.
All perpetrated by Islamic-Arabs’ underground ‘JIHAD’, as a “holy war” against Europeans and Americans (Western powers) and against Jews.
The CIA under Harry Truman – United States. Central Intelligence Agency, Michael Warner, Center for the Study of Intelligence (U.S.). History Staff, 1994, 473 pp.
The partition of Palestine, as proposed to the United Nations, satisfies minimum Zionist demands, but will be bitterly resisted by the Arabs.
Its adoption and implementation would precipitate Arab armed resistance possibly assuming the proportions of a Holy War against Europeans and Americans as well as Jews. The Arab governments could not control this popular reaction; they would be coerced by it, supplanted by governments responsive to the popular will. [pp. 154-5]
At the conference of the Political Committee of the Arab League in October 1947 it is significant that the Mufti, as Chairman of the Arab Higher Committee. played a leading role. Although the Arab Higher Committee and the Arab League. have differed as to the advisability of testifying before UNSCOP, the members of the League are in complete accord over the injustice of partition to the Palestinian Arabs…
(2) Religious Pressure.
The Arab governments are probably as greatly influenced by religious pressures as they are by nationalist pressures. The Arabs are capable of areligious fanaticism which when coupled with political aspirations is an extremely powerful force. Whether or not the Arab governments are capable of guiding this force is difficult to judge. It is very possible that certain religious organizations will take the initiative in organizing Arab resistance in Palestine.
The Ikhwan al Muslimin (Moslem Brotherhood), with headquarters in Egypt, is an organization of young Moslems founded for the purpose of orienting Arab society in accordance with Islamic ideologies. Branches of the Ikhwan have been formed in Syria and Lebanon, and one of the most active branches is in Palestine. The Ikhwan regards Westernization as a dangerous threat to Islam and would oppose any political encroachment of Zionism on Palestine with religious fanaticism. Should a “Jihad,” or Holy War, be declared, the Ikhwan would be the Spearhead of any “crusade.”
The Grand Mufti, as head of the Moslem Supreme Council, can count on the unanimous support of all members of the Ikhwan, who are assured of entrance into Paradise if they die on the ñeld of battle.
(3) Tribal Pressure.
The tribes of the Arab countries are a powerful element in the political and military pattern of the Middle East. The tribe is a group of related families under the leadership of a chief (sheikh) which may be joined in a confederacy with other tribes under a paramount sheikh The economic basis of tribal life is pastoral nomadism involving periodic migrations to seek pasturage for camels, sheep, and horses. The nomad (Beduin) population of Iraq, Syria, Transjordan, and Saudi Arabia has been estimated at 2,500,000.
The conditions of Beduin life have developed a hardy type of fighting man, not only imbued with a warilke tradition (,FONT COLOR=RED>combining religious fanaticism with an enthusiastic devotion to looting, plundering, and raiding) but also trained in the use of small arms and the methods of desert warfare.
Large stipends have been paid annually to the tribes of the Near East by whatever power wished to have their support, whether that power was British, French, or the local Arab government. Since the Arab governments now pay the stipends, they could rely on the tribes within their regions. The tribes would doubtless join the crusade, not only for reasons of Arab patriotism but also for plunder, the assurance of additional stipends, and the thrill of battle. The Syrian Defense Minister stated on 9 October that as the Arabs marched into Palestine they “would be buttressed by 100,000 1ootseeking Beduin described as ‘mine fodder’.”
The dramatic meeting of 500 Kurdish and Arab tribal sheikhs at Hílla in Iraq in October passed a resolution for a Holy War to defend Palestine. Although Prime Minister Saleh Jabr took the initiative in organizing this meeting, it is significant that the Arab and Kurdish leaders (many of whom are hostile to each other) consented to meet and to agree to a common program.
The Bludan Conference of 1946 established a course of procedure* to be followed by the Arab states in the event that the recommendations of the Anglo-American Committee should be implemented.
Following the publication of the UNSCOP report and the speech of Secretary Marshall before UNGA, the Arab League Political Committee met and decided in general terms to apply the Bludan recommendations if partition were voted by the UN.
However, in the discussions on the manner in which these recommendations should be applied, there was considerable disagreement in the Political Committee. Some of the Arab governments refused to consider a break in diplomatic relations with the Western powers, and others refused to cancel oil concessions. Nevertheless, there is complete unanimity among the Arab states as regards aim.
They are all unalterably opposed to the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine. Whether or not they now agree on retaliatory measures against the US is beside the point; in time US interests will be seriously affected, if not by the decisions of the Arab governments, certainly by instability and hostility which will inevitably be aroused in the Arab world.
The bombing of the American Consulate General in Jerusalem on 13 October is evidence of the Arab resentment against US support of the majority plan. This action was reported to have been taken by the newly formed Arab terrorist group which calls itself “the Jihad.” Whatever the official position of the Arab governments may be, the attacks on US property, installations, and personell by irresponsible groups or…
(THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE
PARTITION OF PALESTINE
28 November 1947
October 13, 1947 A terrorist bomb damaged the US. consulate general in Jerusalem, injuring two employees slightly. Similar bombings occurred at the Polish consulate general last night and at the Swedish consulate on September 27.
Page 21, Lowell Sun, October 13, 1947:
ARABS BLAMED FOR U.S CONSULATE BOMBING Two Employees Injured in Jerusalem …
The Daily Independent, October 13, 1947 : Front Page …
… U S JERUSALEM Got A bomb exploded in the compound of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem today slightly injuring two employes and police blamed it on the Arab underground organization Jihad…
Syracuse Herald Journal, October 13, 1947 : Front Page …
Check out Page 1 of Syracuse Herald Journal from October 13, 1947. … indicating further attacks were feared IT WAS the third consulate bombing blamed on the Jihad Besides the Polish and US the Swedish Consulate has been bombed …
PALESTINE AS PRESENTED TO MIDDLE AMERICA IN OCTOBER 1947
ARABS QUICK TO RETALIATE FOR U.S. DECISION
JERUSALEM, Oct 13.-(UP)
A bomb exploded in the compound of the United States consulate in Jerusalem today, slightly injuring two employees, and police blamed it on the Arab underground organization, Jihad.
As the bomb exploded, more than 2,000 Arabs of the Syrian-Lebanese armies, including armored units, were reported to be maneuvering along the northern border of Palestine. The Jewish defense army Hagana alerted its men as far south as the center of Palestine.
Police suspected the Jihad bombed the U.S. consulate in reprisal for the United States announcment of its support on Saturday of a proposal before the United Nations to partition Palestine into Arab and Jewish states.
It was the third consulate bombing blamed on the Jihad. Besides the Polish and U.S. consulates, the Swedish consulate also has been bombed. A Swede was chairman of the committee that recommended Palestine’s partition in a majority report.
A few windows also were broken in the U.S consulate and the consul-general’s dining room was slightly damaged. The two injured employees were cut by pieces of flying glass.
The guard around the U.S. consulate had been reinforced recently and police said they did not understand how the bombers got through. They suspected, however, that the Arabs entered the compound of the consulate over Julian’s Way, a road which runs behind the building.
The bomb went off about 10 feet from the entrance to the consulate. The circumstances were almsost identical with those in the bombing of the Polish consulate.
The Syrian-Lebanese forces, part of the seven-nation Arab army the Arab League had threatened to throw against the Jews, were so close to the frontier that Palestinians could see their campfires twinkling across the desert all night. A United Press correspondant at one border town saw ground forces maneuvering.
Although the Hagana, which claims to have a total of 75,000 Jews enrolled, alerted its followers, it evidently was not deeply impressed.
Official Syrian and Lebanese sources said Friday that those nations had sent a total of 25,000 troops to the northern frontier. There were no reports from anywhere in Palestine today that more than one-tenth of that number were up to the frontier.
The Jewish Irgun Zvai Leumi, which reportedly has 10,000 men, announced that it was ready to call off its feud with Hagana and join a common defense army, if Hagana started general recruiting to meet the emergency.
Polish Consulate in Jerusalem Bombed;seen As Arab Reply to Pro-jewish Stand at U.N.
October 13, 1947
Jerusalem, Oct. 12 (JTA) –
The Polish Consulate here was bombed today in what was thought to be an Arab reply to the pro-Jewish statement made at the U.N. this week by the Polish delegation. The blast caused slight damage and no casualties.
A few minutes later another explosion was heard in the Rehavia quarter. Police said later that a grenade had been thrown at an armored patrol car. Armed guards are stationed around the U.S. Consulate, which is a logical target for attacks. The Swedish Consulate was bomed earlier this month, apparently in retaliation for the fact that Judge Emil Sandstroem was chairman of UNSCOP.
Meanwhile, leaders of the Jewish community, who have been heartened by the U.S. position, were engaged this week-end in working out a wind-up statement at the U.N. and in girding for internal defense. The Agency met today to discuss both these questions, but no statement was issued.
The Jewish National Council again called on the Yishuv to be ready to meet any possible disorders, at the same time that it appealed to the Arabs for peace. The secretariats of the Palestine Labor Party and the Histadruth also issued “mobilization orders.” The Labor Party held a special conference to map new security precautions and to discuss the steps that will have to be taken prior to Britain’s withdrawal.
Persistent reports from the Arab League council meeting in Lebanon that a provisional government for Palestine had been set up, composed mainly of members of the Palestine Arab Higher Executive, said that its composition would be announced within a few days. The reports say the “government” has already appointed district commanders to take over when the British leave.
It is learned, meanwhile, that two British battalions in Galilee will soon be withdrawn, one to Affuleh, the other to Tiberias, which are now garrisoned by units of the Arab Legion.
Since there have been clashes between settlers in Galilee and legionnaires, the Haganah has reinforced its security provisions in Galilee. However, a Haganah source insisted today that these steps were not taken with a view to meeting a possible border attack, because it is believed accounts of Arab troops from Syria, Lebanon and Egypt moving against Palestine are exaggerated out of all proportion to the facts, although reports tonight said that some Syrian units had arrived on Palestine’s northern border.
(A Foreign Office spokesman declared yesterday in London that if a threat of war developed in Palestine, Britain might consider placing the matter before the United Nations, but added that no such threat had developed. Asked whether, in the event of an armed conflict, Britain would halt the delivery of arms to Iraq, Egypt and Transjordan under the treaties of alliance made with these states, the spokesman replied Britain might consider that possibility.)
U.S. Consulate in Jerusalem Bombed; Two Employees Injured, Damage to Property Slight
October 14, 1947
Jerusalem, Oct. 13 (JTA) – The United States consulate in Jerusalem was bombed today in what was thought to be an Arab reply to the pro-partition statement made at Lake Success on Saturday by U.S. delegate Herschel Johnson.
The blast slightly injured two mail-room employees–Ethel Delevi of Boston and Miriam Pilpel, a Palestinian–and damaged a car in the consulate courtyard. A door leading from the courtyard was blown in and the hallway littered with plaster.
When the explosion occurred, Consul Robert MacAtee was conferring with the High Commissioner on measures to safeguard the consulate. He rushed from Government House to the scene of the blast. Later, he met with high police officers to plan further security precautions. An armed guard has been stationed around the consulate for the past few days.
An official visit to Baghdad by a Congressional sub-committee has been cancelled as a result of the Iraq Government’s displeasure at the stand taken by the U.S. delegate on the UNSCOP report, according to dispatches reaching here from that capital. Receptions by the government and the U.S. Embassy had been scheduled.