Posts Tagged ‘persecution’

Fascism in the Middle East – history

May 11, 2010

Fascism in the Middle East (1930-40)

Contents

Fascism in the Middle East

Mussolini’s fascism impressed many in Turkey, there were many similarities between the Italian fascist regime and the Kemalists, including racist rhetoric and authoritarianism [1]

Reza Shah Pahlavi, interwar ruler of Iran, sometimes referred to as ‘the Mussolini of Islam’. resident Germans worked actively for National Socialist propaganda, and by May 1940 there were about 4000 Nazi agents across the country. [2]

“The whole Arab youth is enthused by Adolf Hitler,” wrote Kamil Muruwwa, the young editor of the Beirut paper An-Nida’, to the German Foreign Minister in Berlin. The year after Hitler came to power, Muruwwa translated Mein Kampf from English into Arabic and published it in daily installments in An-Nida’. [3]

The radical Arab nationalist groups of the 1930s and after were influenced by European fascism. From an early date Mussolini chose to present himself as a promoter of Arab nationalism, above all as a tool for the expansion of Italian influence. The Fascist regime had him proclaimed a “hero of Islam” and “defender of Islam” in Italian Libya. where a parallel Libyan Arab Fascist party was created. [4] [5] From Newsweek of October 7, 1940, he made a trip to Libya and there proclaimed himself the “Defender of Islam,” Leaflets were distributed, which reminded Arabs that Mussolini was there “defender” [6]. In Egypt the Italians have adopted much of the same line, and last week they also continued efforts to woo King Farouk with promises that if he threw in his lot with the totalitarian powers he might become the head of a greater Arab state. [7].

At least four other Arab countries had developed fascist-type movements by 1939: Syria, Egypt, Lebanon and Iraq. among the pre WW2 Arab-Nazi organizations were: the Iron Shirts (led by Fakhri al-Barudi of the National Bloc, still a member of the Syrian parliament in 1946); the League for National Action (headed by Abdu al-Huda al-Yab, Dr. Zaki al-Jabi and others); the An-Nadi al-Arabi Club of Damascus (headed by Dr. Said Abd Al-Fattah al-Imam); the Councils for the Defense of Arab Palestine (head by well known pro-Nazi leaders, such as Nabi al-Azmah, Adil Arslan and others); the Syrian People’s Party SSNP. [8]

In the case of Palestine, it is by now generally acknowledged that the Arab riots of 1936-1939 were stimulated and subsidised by Nazi and Fascist sources [9], so popular among the Palestinian Arabs during the riots of 1936, may be traced to Italian propaganda. [10].

The three groups most directly influenced by European fascism were the Iraqi Futuwwa, the Young Egypt Association (green shirts) [11] and the Syrian People’s Party (Syrian Nationalist Socialist Party, SSNP, modeled on Hitler’s Nazi Party, its symbol, a curved swastika on its flag, called the Zawbah, [12], it’s founder Sa’ada was known as al-za’in (the Führer) and the party anthem was “Syria, Syria, über alles” sung to the same tune as German, [13]), they were territorially expansionist, with Saib Shawkat, the Futuwwa ideologue, envisioning the “Arab nation” as eventually covering half the globe (by conversion).[14][15][16]

The leading advocate of a rapprochement with fascism was Rashid Ali al-Gaylani (1892-1965), who after 1924 was several times justice and interior minister of Iraq and who had emerged as leader of the pan-Arab nationalists in 1930.[17]

The mufti al-Husayni (who met with Hitler [18] and shared with Mussolini a devotion to fascism as well as passionate hatred for both the British and the Jews [19]) inspired the development of pro-Nazi parties throughout the Arab world including Young Egypt, led by Gamal Abdul Nasser, and the Social Nationalist Party of Syria (SSNP) led by Anton Sa’ada. [20]

Despite Arabs showing support for fascism, the Nazis were clear in their minds that the Arabs were racially inferior, and there would, therefore, be no pleasure to be had from helping them in anything except for the extermination of Jews in their region. [21], most Arabs never realized that the Nazis would consider them racially inferior as well. [22] Although he loathed Arabs, he once described them as “lacquered half-apes who ought to be whipped” [23] [24], Hitler understood that he and the Mufti (al-Husayni) shared the same rivals – the British, the Jews and the Communists.[25] Mussolini’s PNF passed racial legislations against Arabs as well (along, Jews & Africans). [26]

Al-Muthanna & al-Futuwwa

The al-Muthanna Club and its al-Futuwwa movement, were part of Pan-Arabists’ proto-fascist organizations developed during the 1930s. [27]

Both, the al-Muthanna Club & its al-Futuwwa youth wing came about the same time, as Iraqi pan-Arab government supported forum for pan-Arab activists, consisting of both young officers and leading educators, in early 1935. The reformation conducted by the Ministry of Education in October 1935, together with the army’s establishment of the Al-Futuwa youth movement in 1931, combined to create a full fledged paramilitary organization under the command of the Ministry’s general director, Dr. Saib Shawkat, which imitated, modeled after the Hitler Jugend. [28] [29][30] [31]. The pan-Arab government sponsored the Futuwwa Youth movement [32].

The fascist Pan-Arab al-Muthanna club[33][34] delivered speeches supporting Nazism[35], and with its (officially modeled Hitler Youth [36] [37]) al-Futuwwa, have participated in the 1941 Farhud attack on Baghdad’s Jewish community.[38][39] [40] [41], following agitation [42] by Dr. Saib Shawkat (Sāmī Shawkat), a high official in the Ministry of Education in the pre-war years and for a while its director general who was the head of “al-Futuwwa.” In one of his addresses, “The Profession of Death,” he called on Iraqi youth to adopt the way of life of Nazi Fascists. In another speech he branded the Jews as the enemy from within, who should be treated accordingly. In another, he praised Hitler and Mussolini for eradicating their internal enemies (the Jews). Syrian and Arab Palestinian teachers often supported Shawkat in his preaching (he had cooperation with the Mufti (Al-Husayni)[43]). [44].

Besides espousing a fanatic Pan-Arabism, the Futuwwa adopted a frankly totalitarian ideology [45]

Nationalist rhetoric accompanied major efforts to build fascist-style youth organizations by recruiting young men to serve as the strike force of the nationalist movement. Throughout the 1930s the children of wealthy Palestinians returned home from European universities having witnessed the emergence of fascist paramilitary forces. Palestinian students educated in Germany returned to Palestine determined to found the Arab Nazi Party. The Husseinis used the Palestinian Arab Party to establish the al-Futuwwa youth corps, which was named after an association of Arab Nazi Scouts. By 1936 the Palestinian Arab Party was sponsoring the developments of storm troops patterned on the German model. These storm troops, all children and youth, were to be outfitted in black trousers and red shirts… The young recruits took the following oath: “Life — my right; independence — my aspiration; Arabism — my country, and there is no room in it for any but Arabs. In this I believe and Allah is my witness.” .. The al-Futuwwa youth groups connected Palestinian youth to fascist youth movements elsewhere in the Middle East. While the Mufti was establishing youth groups in Palestine, al-Futuwwa groups were established in Iraq. [46]

Najjada & Phalanges

In 1936 and 1937, Beirut and other Lebanese cities witnessed the emergence of paramilitary youth organizations with clear fascist tendencies, the Lebanese Phalanges and the al-Najjada (Najjada). These movements were of a religious bent and became entangled in sectarian and political rivalries, The Lebanese Phalanges also staunchly supported Lebanon’s independence and borders. The group’s first political activity took place on 21 November 1936 to counter Muslim demonstrations in Beirut. The Najjada was an Arab Muslim organization which stood for Arab unity, the independence of the Arab world from foreign rule, and an Arab Lebanon. It was formed at the end of 1936 from a Muslim scout organization established by Nasuli, to protect Muslim Beirut and counter Christian paramilitary organizations. Its members marched through the streets of the Muslims quarters hoisting the Syrian flag and banners with slogans calling for Arab unity, and to held demonstrations in support of the Muslim struggle in Palestine. [47]

Nasuli, leader of the Muslim scouting movement and newspaper publisher, since at least 1933 newspapers had been printing Hitler’s speeches and excerpts from “Mein Kampf.” Hitler and Mussolini were viewed in both Syria and Lebanon as models of strong statebuilders, Nasuli adopted the motto Arabism Above All on his newspaper’s masthead, which also printed glowing accounts of German youth’s support of Hitler. [48]

The Lebanese Najjada presented itself as the Muslim equivalent of the Phalange [49], The Sunni organization appeared soon after to counter Christian solidarity with Muslim solidarity [50] A Muslim ‘twin’ to the Phalangists, the organization was often described, the rivals often clashed. [51]

The Phalange which began as an (Arab) Christian youth organization modeled after those of Mussolini’s Italy and other fascist organizations, although they adopted a fascist salute and the flag-waving paraphernalia of fascism, the early Phalangists were less fascists than glorified Boy Scouts. [52] According to Pryce-Jones, the Phalange was not a generically fascist movement, after all.[53]

Baathism

The Pan-Arab Ba’ath Party movement is believed to be influenced by European fascism (asides from socialism) [54][55][56] and is widely considered to be fascist.[57][58][59]

Although Saddam Hussein never acknowledged the training of a youth brigade, he has, in several past speeches, spoken admiringly of the Hitler Youth. It is widely believed that he belonged to the Futuwa, a paramilitary youth organisation which was modelled on the Hitler Youth and was formed in Baghdad in the late 1950s. [60]

From History channel’s ‘”Saddam and the Third Reich”‘

Few people realize that the Ba’ath party was actually formed upon the principles and organizational structure of the Nazi party. Iraq, because of its oil and hatred of Jews, was an important battleground between the Axis and Allied powers in World War II. Nazi propaganda was broadcast throughout Baghdad, and Iraqis often went on rampages against Jews throughout the war. One of the most ardent Nazi supporters during WWII was named Khairallah Talfah. Talfah (Tulfah) was Saddam’s uncle. After the war, many of the key Iraqi Nazi supporters, all of whom evaded prosecution, wound up involved in Saddam’s rise to power. This special examines the key individuals of the Iraqi-Nazi connection, the little-known battle for Iraq in WWII, and the strange link to Saddam Hussein.

[61] [62]

Author Fred Halliday writes about 1958-1979: Arab Nationalism confronting Imperial Iran, Ba’thist ideology, where, under the influence of al-Husri, Iran was presented as the age-old enemy of the Arabs. Al-Husri’s impact on the Iraqi education system was made during the period of the monarchy, but it was the Ba’athists, trained in that period and destined to take power later, who brought his ideas to their full, official and racist, culmination. For the Ba’athists their pan-Arab ideology was laced with anti-Persian racism, it rested on the pursuit of anti-Persian themes, over the decade and a half after coming to power, Baghdad organised the expulsion of Iraqis of Persian origin, beginning with 40,000 Fayli Kurds, but totalling up to 200,000 or more, by the early years of the war itself. Such racist policies were reinforced by ideology: in 1981, a year after the start of the Iran-Iraq war, Dar al-Hurriya, the government publishing house, issued “Three_Whom_God_Should_Not_Have_Created.” by the author, Khairallah Talfah (Tulfah), the foster-father and father-in-law of Saddam Hussein. Halliday says that it was the Ba’thists too who, claiming to be the defenders of ‘Arabism’ on the eastern frontiers, brought to the fore the chauvinist myth of Persian migrants and communities in the Gulf. [63]

  1.  Turkey: a modern history By Erik Jan Zürcher, p. 186
  2. ^ World fascism: a historical encyclopedia, Cyprian Blamires, Paul Jackson – 2006, p. 342 [2]
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  29. ^ “Alienation or integration of Arab youth: between family, state and street” by Roel Meijer, Routledge, 2000, p. 61 [10]
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  38. ^ Davis, Eric, Memories of State: Politics, History, and Collective Identity in Modern Iraq (Berkely: University of California Press, 2005), p. 14
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  52. ^ Lebanon: death of a nation By Sandra Mackey pp 50-51 [15]
  53. ^ Pryce-Jones, D. The Closed Circle, New York: 1989, pp 182-208, cited by, Payne, Stanley G. A History of Fascism, 1914-1945. Madisn University of Wisconsin Press: 1995, p. 352 [16]
  54. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=MIQcSVHRu_8C&pg=PA37
  55. ^ Contemporary European affairs, volume 4, edition 1-3‎, 1991, page 131
  56. ^ The Economist, Volume 366, The Economist Newspaper Ltd., 2003
  57. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/2940591.stm
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  60. ^ http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/middleeast/iraq/1428511/You-boys-you-are-the-seeds-from-which-our-great-President-Saddam-will-rise-again.html
  61. ^ http://shop.history.com/detail.php?a=74647
  62. ^ http://www.militaryhistorycollection.com/Saddam-And-The-Third-Reich
  63. ^ Nation and religion in the Middle East‎, Fred Halliday, pp 117-118, [17]

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Israel – National Liberation of the aboriginal Jews from the twin fascisms of pan-Arabism and Islamism

April 28, 2009

Israel – National Liberation of the aboriginal Jews from the twin fascisms of pan-Arabism and Islamism

…Israel as the result of the national liberation movement of the region’s aboriginal Jews.
Liberation of the aboriginal Jews (and anyone else lucky enough to find refuge within Israel’s borders) from the twin fascisms of pan-Arabism and Islamism which have oppressed and even eliminated so many of the region’s aboriginal ethnic groups.
Israel’s aboriginal Jews were not unique in accepting outside help (and even immigration) in their liberation struggle.
Lebanon’s Maronites, Egypt’s Copts, Iraq and Turkey’s Kurds, and Iran’s Zoroastrians have all sought and received outside help in their liberation struggles, each group according to its own circumstances.

http://corner.nationalreview.com/post/?q=YzY4ZjgzMDY3NmExNmE4ODM5NDRmODg3N2I5YTU4YWI=

ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN’S PERSECUTION OPPRESSION OF MINORITIES – ISLAMIC APARTHEID

April 24, 2009
ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN’S PERSECUTION OPPRESSION OF MINORITIES – ISLAMIC APARTHEID

In General, Christians, Baha’i, Kurds, Jews, Azeris, Baluchis, Ahwazi Arabs

Again, religious persecution in Iran
February 20, 2009
Ethel C. Fenig
As Thomas Lifson noted yesterday Iranian authorities destroyed a Sufi holy site, continuing their practice of pressuring and discriminating against religions that do not strictly follow the Shi’ite form of Islam. But the Sufis are not the only religious minority suffering discrimination in Iran.

The 2500 year old Jewish community, which numbered over 80,000 thirty years ago at the time of the Khoemeni Revolution which overthrew the Shah, has dwindled to about 20,000. Those remaining Jews live restricted personal and religious lives, always under suspicion of being traitors for pro “Zionist” activities.
Despite the official distinction between “Jews,” “Zionists,” and “Israel,” the most common accusation the Jews encounter is that of maintaining contacts with Zionists. The Jewish community does enjoy a measure of religious freedom but is faced with constant suspicion of cooperating with the Zionist state and with “imperialistic America” — both such activities are punishable by death. Jews who apply for a passport to travel abroad must do so in a special bureau and are immediately put under surveillance. The government does not generally allow all members of a family to travel abroad at the same time to prevent Jewish emigration. Again, the Jews live under the status of dhimmi, with the restrictions im posed on religious minorities. Jewish leaders fear government reprisals if they draw attention to official mistreatment of their community.

Iran’s official government-controlled media often issues anti-Semitic propaganda. A prime example is the government’s publishing of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, a notorious Czarist forgery, in 1994 and 1999.2 Jews also suffer varying degrees of officially sanctioned discrimination, particularly in the areas of employment, education, and public accommodations.
The Islamization of the country has brought about strict control over Jewish educational institutions. Before the revolution, there were some 20 Jewish schools functioning throughout the country. In recent years, most of these have been closed down. In the remaining schools, Jewish principals have been replaced by Muslims. In Teheran there are still three schools in which Jewish pupils constitute a majority. The curriculum is Islamic, and Persian is forbidden as the language of instruction for Jewish studies. Special Hebrew lessons are conducted on Fridays by the Orthodox Otzar ha-Torah organization, which is responsible for Jewish religious education. Saturday is no longer officially recognized as the Jewish sabbath, and Jewish pupils are compelled to attend school on that day. There are three synagogues in Teheran, but since 1994, there has been no rabbi in Iran, and the bet din does not function.
At least 13 Jews have been executed in Iran since the Islamic revolution 30 years ago, most of them for either religious reasons or their connection to Israel. For example, in May 1998, Jewish businessman Ruhollah Kakhodah-Zadeh was hanged in prison without a public charge or legal proceeding, apparently for assisting Jews to emigrate.
Other religious groups are persecuted too. This week Iran admitted that seven Bahai leaders arrested and detained more than eight months ago would be charged with spying for Israel.
The Bahai faith, which began in the 19th century in what is now Iran, claims their founder, Baha’a’llah, is the last Moslem prophet, not Mohammed. Bahai’s international headquarters are located in Haifa, Israel where Bahais, along with Moslems and Christians of various backgrounds, plus other religions in addition to Jews can practice freely.
This is not true in Iran.
Bahais claim 300,000 followers in Iran, but there are no independent statistics on the denomination’s size in the country. The Islamic republic allows Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians, who are regarded as members of monotheistic religions, to hold religious gatherings. Bahais are forbidden to hold such meetings, and those who make their faith public are banned from studying at universities serving in the army and working in government offices.
The Iranian prosecutors claim
“All evidence points to the fact that the Bahai organization is in direct contact with the foreign enemies of Iran,” Dorri-Najafabadi wrote in the letter, (snip) “The ghastly Bahai organization is illegal on all levels, their dependence on Israel has been documented, their antagonism with Islam and the Islamic System is obvious, their danger for national security is proven and any replacement organization must also be dealt with according to the law,”
This charge is part of the latest prosecution against Iranian Bahais.
The Bahai International Community, which represents members of the faith worldwide, says hundreds of followers have been jailed and some executed in the years since Iran’s 1979 Islamic revolution.
http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2009/02/again_religious_persecution_in.html

Religious minorities in Iran: Information from Answers.com
http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521770734

Iran Minority News
http://iranminoritynews.org

Middle East Minorities Unite! by Joseph … Iran ’s Islamic republic has created serious problems for the large communities of non-Persian minorities, including the Azeri’s and the Baluchis and is … http://www.frontpagemag.com/Articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=24209

Q&A: Iran’s Waning Human Rights – New York Times, Iran is a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which affords legal rights to minorities and minors. Persecution of religious minorities …
http://www.nytimes.com/cfr/world/slot1_081006.html?_r=3&oref=slogin&oref=slogin&oref=slogin

AZERIS
azerireport.com – Iran Fears Velvet Revolution: Can Azeris Do It? Also, religious minorities such as Christians, Jews and Bahais have also been persecuted. The news regarding arrests of Azeri ethnics in Iran is not unusual …
http://azerireport.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=973&Itemid=49

Minorities Persecuted In Iran, Voice of America interviews Fakhte …Sep 22, 2006 … Religious and ethnic minorities in Iran are often persecuted by the government. Azeris, who make up approximately one-quarter of Iran’s …
http://www.en.baybak.com/minorities-persecuted-in-iran.azr

Iran Minority News » Blog Archive » Persecution of Large Minority …Persecution of Large Minority Community, the Iranian Azeris.
http://iranminoritynews.org/2009/04/01/persecution-of-large-minority-community-the-iranian-azeris/

Persecution, Tension and Awakening in Northern Iran – The Henry …Many Azeris view themselves as something of a sleeping giant in Iranian politics … and Azeris, but of Arabs, Kurds, Balochs, Turkmen and other minorities, …
http://www.henryjacksonsociety.org/stories.asp?id=343

Persecution Of Azeri Iranians, Listen to Persecution Of Iran’s Azeri Minority (Real Player) audio clip. For the past fifteen years, the Iranian Azerbaijani minority has been fighting for …
http://www.voanews.com/uspolicy/archive/2006-10/2006-10-12-voa6.cfm

UNPO – UNPO General Assembly Joint Member Resolution… repression and persecution of ethnic and religious minorities in Iran, … The Ahwazi Arab, Azeri Turk, Balochi and Kurdish nation members of UNPO …
http://www.unpo.org/content/view/8296/259/

Amnesty Blogs: Hurry Up Hurriyat : Ethnic minority journalists in Iran, Aug 29, 2008 …Iran minorities journalist journalists arab balochi kurd … Azizi’s case is part of a growing trend in Iran against journalists from Arab, Azeri, … restive amid claims of cultural persecution and discrimination. …
http://blogs.amnesty.org.uk/blogs_entry.asp?eid=1842

Iran Working Group examines the situation of ethnic and religious minorities
2008-03-17
LEADERSHIP COUNCIL FOR HUMAN RIGHTS
Washington, D.C. – On Thursday, March 13 representatives of Iran’s ethnic and religious groups testified at a meeting of the Iran Working Group, a Congressional body co-chaired by Congressman Mark Kirk and Congressman Robert Andrews. The Leadership Council for Human Rights assisted in organizing the hearing, which included testimony from Fakhteh Zamani, Director of the Association for the Defense of Azerbaijani Political Prisoners; Sharif Behruz, U.S. Representative of the Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan; Kit Bigelow, Director of External Affairs for the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha’is of the U.S.; Dr. Ali Al-Taie, Professor at Shaw University and author of The Arabs of Khuzestan and Iran; Dr. M. Hosseinbor, Iranian Baluchi and author of Iran and Its Nationalities: The Case of Baloch Nationalism; and Nina Shea, vice chair of the U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom.
LCHR President Kathryn Cameron Porter served as moderator. Porter stressed the importance of seeking solidarity among Iran’s diverse marginalized groups in order to promote human rights for all persecuted peoples.
Rep. Kirk, who convened the working group meeting, said the treatment of Iran’s minorities was a bi-partisan issue of concern. He spoke about the importance of Iran in the future of the United States’ foreign policy, and warned about the danger of failing to understand the country’s complexities and making cultural mistakes.
Nina Shea gave a comprehensive summary of the International Religious Freedom Report on Iran, describing “systematic, ongoing persecution based primarily or entirely upon religion.” Iran’s constitution recognizes Christians, Jews and Zoroastrians, as well as non-Shi’a Muslims, as members of official minority religions, but there are severe limitations upon the rights of these groups. According to the International Religious Freedom Report, religious minorities “face substantial societal discrimination, and government actions continued to support elements of society who create a threatening atmosphere.”
Groups that are not recognized face even greater problems, as illustrated by the testimony of Kit Bigelow. More than 200 Baha’is have been killed in Iran since 1978 and countless more have been imprisoned, attacked and harassed, she said. The elimination of the Baha’is is explicit government policy, meaning that they face arbitrary arrest, imprisonment, and defamation from the government sponsored media on a daily basis.
Since Ahmadinejad came to power there has been a new wave of discrimination against Baha’is, Bigelow said. A new draft penal code is currently being considered which specifically requires the death penalty as a punishment for apostasy, and it is thought that this is a direct threat against the Baha’i community which is regularly condemned for apostasy by the authorities.
Discrimination goes beyond religion. Iran is home to many distinct ethnic groups with their own identities and languages. Persians, the dominant ethnic group in Iran, in fact constitute just 45 percent of the population, said Dr. Hosseinbor. The remaining 55 percent of the population, made up of Kurds, Baluchis, Arabs, Azeris, Turkmen and Turks, tend to be spread around the outside of the state, often splitting their population between two or three countries.
Sharif Behruz said that the poorest areas of Iran are those populated by ethnic minorities. Lack of investment has resulted in a comparatively low quality of life.
One of the biggest grievances of Iran’s ethnic minorities, expressed by all the representatives of minority groups present at the meeting, is the restriction on cultural rights, particularly the use of minority languages. Kurds, Azeris, Baluchis and other minorities are not permitted to use their mother tongue in schools, and there are significant barriers to the publishing of books. This is just one part of a larger policy of “forced assimilation” which, according to Fakhteh Zamani, has been put in place by the rulers of Iran since the 1920s.
The state-sponsored media also runs defamation campaigns, she said, including openly insulting Azeris, depicting them as intellectually challenged characters, and generally perpetuating the misconception that they are “backward”- a stereotype held by many due to the fact that they are not fluent in Farsi, the official national language.
Under the Islamic Republic, said Sharif Behruz, people are systematically repressed, and minorities are viewed as second class citizens: “unlawful detentions, torture, harassment, executions and disappearances have become a daily routine in the Kurdish areas,” he said.
Behruz said that in order to move forward and develop Iran must become “democratic and decentralized.” This would “recover its devastated economy, create political stability inside and assist in bringing about stability, security in the region, and most importantly, as an effective member of the international community can strengthen world peace.”
Congresswoman Sheila Jackson Lee emphasized the importance of continuing to speak up for these minority groups. “Every government can be judged by its treatment of ethnic and religious minorities,” she said, “and Iran would get a failing grade.”
http://www.pdki.org/articles1-1337-83.htm

Many Azeris see Iranian hand behind wave of unrest
Iran is working hard to become the leader of the global jihad. By Ilan Greenberg in the International Herald Tribune, with thanks to Twostellas:
BAKU, Azerbaijan: An article denigrating Islam published early last month in an obscure newspaper here in the capital has led to emotional demonstrations across Azerbaijan and in Iran. A prominent Iranian cleric demanded the death of the two writers of the article, who have been imprisoned in Azerbaijan.
The article blamed Islam for Azerbaijan’s meager development and likened the Prophet Muhammad to a used handkerchief. The ensuing furor echoes the case of the Danish cartoons published in September 2005 that mocked Islam and that, months later, generated protests throughout the Muslim world.
Here, the thunderous rhetoric from village imams and other religious conservatives has sent tremors through the Azeri government and the secular elite of the nation.
“I am for freedom of speech but not the freedom to insult,” said Haji Ilgar, an imam at the Jama Old City Mosque in Baku who is often critical of the government of the secular president, Ilham Aliyev. “The only solution is to take this to the courts.”
Many Azeris see the roots of the trouble in what they consider Iran’s shadowy influence here. The two countries have had an often prickly relationship since Azerbaijan’s independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Iran is the regional power, and Azerbaijan is an up- and-coming oil state, tucked between Iran and Russia on the Caspian Sea.
Both Iran and Azerbaijan are Shiite, but Azeris fear that Iran wants to destabilize the country by spreading its brand of militant Islam across the border. Iran is struggling to deal with a large minority — upwards of a third — of Iran’s 66 million people who are ethnic Azeri, a beleaguered minority that frequently agitates for more rights and cultural autonomy. Iran does not want them to get any ideas from a secular and prospering Azerbaijan, in this view.
http://www.jihadwatch.org/archives/014536.php

AHWAZI – ARABS
The British Ahwazi Friendship Society campaigns on behalf of the Ahwazi Arabs, an indigenous ethnic group persecuted by successive Iranian governments. …
http://www.ahwaz.org.uk/

Middle East transfer: The continuing Iranian persecution of its Ahwazi Arab population … Over a million Arabs have been deported from the district of Al-Ahwaz, home to some eight million Arabs, in Southern-East Iran, near the Iraqi border. …
http://www.henryjacksonsociety.org/stories.asp?id=366

Tehran’s secret war against its own people | Peter Tatchell …Oct 10, 2006 … The persecution of Ahwazi Arabs and the takeover of their land has led to …. is so silent in the face of Iran’s persecution of Arabs. …
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/comment/columnists/guest_contributors/article666792.ece

San Francisco Chronicle – Little-known Arab group in Iran faces …Little-known Arab group in Iran faces persecution … The government accuses Ahwazi Arabs of plotting foreign invasions with everyone from the CIA to Saddam …
http://web.radicalparty.org/pressreview/print_right.php

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World Prout Assembly: Ahwazis: Arab Group in Iran Faces Persecution, Ahwazis: Arab Group in Iran Faces Persecution. For decades, the Persian shahs and ayatollahs of Iran have uprooted Ahwazi Arabs from their oil-rich region …
http://www.worldproutassembly.org/archives/2006/11/ahwazis_arab_gr.htmlfunc=detail&par=14038

Iran, stop persecuting your Arab minority | Op-Ed Contributors …Yet the Iranian regime’s claim to represent the interests of Arabs is belied by its brutal persecution of the indigenous Ahwazi Arabs living within its own …
http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?c=JPArticle&cid=1207649974077&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FShowFull

Iran’s Occupied Territories – The Henry Jackson Society, Apr 16, 2008 … Ahwazi Arabs want to be free of ethnic persecution and political oppression and be part of an Iran that embraces cultural diversity and …
http://www.henryjacksonsociety.org/stories.asp?id=597

This an appeal by Ahwazi Arab journalist Mohammad Hassan Fallahiya to the … to raise the issues of national [ethnic] and religious persecution in Iran…
https://www.indymedia.ie/article/84872

Ahwazi: WS on the Case of Ahwazi Arabs in Iran, These persons, all members of Iran’s Ahwazi Arab minority were … According to reports, demonstrators were demanding an end to the persecution of Arabs, … http://www.unpo.org/article.php?id=3985

Look Who’s Persecuting Their Arab Minority! Persecution of an Arab minority. Confiscation of Arab land. Ethnic cleansing. It’s just another day in…Iran. … Tehran has a grand plan to make the Ahwazi a minority in their own land through … As I have written from time to time, Islam is very unpopular in Iran … http://daledamos.blogspot.com/search/label/Iran

Ahwazi: Twenty Persons Face Execution in Iran http://www.unpo.org/article.php?id=5371

CHRISTIANS
Iran Christian Persecution Profile
http://www.cswusa.com/Countries/Iran.htm

The Persecution of Christians in Iran http://www.jubileecampaign.co.uk/world/ira1.htm

Iran Christian Persecution, Christian Persecution continues in Islamic Fundamentalist State of Iran.
http://www.warriorsfortruth.com/iran-christian-persecution.html

Sep 11, 2008 … Two Iranian Christians from Muslim backgrounds may receive the death penalty on charges of apostasy, according to prosecution documents …
http://www.christianpersecution.info/news/iranian-christians-face-death-penalty-in-iran-16204/

Tortured Christian flees Iran. – OneNewsNow – 7/22/2008 11:30:00 AM Bookmark and Share … Iranian Christian Mohsen Namvar has fled across the border into Turkey with his family. ….
http://www.onenewsnow.com/Persecution/Default.aspx?id=186434

BAHA’I
The Case of the Bahá’í Minority in Iran
http://www.bahai.org/article-1-8-3-7.html

Escalating persecution in Iran – http://www.bahai.org.au/scripts/WebObjects.exe/BNO.woa/wa/pages?page=28/64/EscalatingpersecutioninIran1

Clergy gather to protest Iran’s persecution of the Bahai Faith
Organizers say if a government can persecute one religion, all faiths are at risk
April 09, 2009
By john darling
for the Mail Tribune
Leaders of several faiths are gathering Saturday in Medford to protest the persecution of members of the Bahai Faith under the Iranian government and to show support for a resolution by U.S. Sen. Ron Wyden, D-Ore., calling for the release of prisoners being held in Iraq for their faith.
http://www.mailtribune.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20090409/NEWS/904090321/-1/LIFE

KURDS
The Plight of Iran’s Kurds | The Middle East InstituteIndeed, to understand the plight of Kurds in Iran, Amitay contended, … coupled with what Amitay characterizes as the persecution of Kurds in Turkey, …
http://www.mideasti.org/summary/plight-irans-kurds

Kurdistan – Kurdish Conflict, There were approximately 4 million Kurds in Iran as of a 1986 census. … which historically has been persecuted by both Sunni and Shia Muslims. …
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/war/kurdistan.htm

Forgotten people: the world and the Kurds. (persecution of Kurds …(persecution of Kurds in Iran and Iraq after the cease-fire) … find The Nation articles. We’re living through hard times,” a Kurdish father tells his son …
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-7849315.html

The Unknown Oppression of the Kurds …. Iran had used the Kurdish parties of northern Iraq during its war with Iraq. So, all these countries benefit from …
http://www.mit.edu/~thistle/v12/2/kurds.html

Testimony of Sharif Behruz, Democratic Party of Iranian …Mar 13, 2008 … The Kurdish area of Iranian Kurdistan is 125000 sq km which is about 8 … most of the Kurds in Iran suffer from triple layers of oppression …
http://www.pdki.org/articles1-1346-28.htm

Iran: Freedom of Expression and Association in the Kurdish Regions …Jan 9, 2009 … (A list of persons who faced governmental persecution as a result of ….. [62] “Iran: Kurdish Teacher Tortured, Sentenced to Death,” Human …
http://www.hrw.org/en/node/79044/section/7

VOA News – Persecution Of Kurdish Iranians. … Farzad Kamangar is a teacher, a human rights defender, and a member of Iran’s Kurdish minority. …
http://www.voanews.com/uspolicy/2009-01-13-voa1.cfm

Statement of Support by Writers and Journalists from Kurdistan …Many of my community members have themselves experienced persecution, imprisonment, and torture before fleeing Iran. Hearing the Kurdish statement …
http://www.iranpresswatch.org/2009/02/kurdish-statement-support/

Forgotten people: the world and the Kurds. (persecution of Kurds in Iran and Iraq after the cease-fire) .
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb1367/is_198908/ai_n5609451/

Autonomy of Iranian KurdistanNov 8, 1983 … of democracy in Iran and autonomy in Kurdistan, and in order to overcome the double oppression of the oppressed Kurdish nationality. …
http://www.iran-e-azad.org/english/kurd.html

Plan for Autonomy of Iranian Kurdistan… The National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI) is the parliament-in-exile of … and in order to overcome the double oppression of the oppressed Kurdish nationality. … 1- The autonomous region encompasses all of Iranian Kurdistan. …
http://ncr-iran.org/content/view/32/

Alliance for Kurdish Rights » Family wounded and boy killed during …Mar 11, 2009 … Iranian Shelling Wounds Two In Iraqi Kurdistan · AKR: Turkish and Iranian bombardments on Iraqi Kurdistan destroy more villages …
http://www.kurdishrights.org/2009/03/11/kurdish-family-wounded-and-lose-a-child-during-continued-iranian-shelling/

The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) and Iran have reached an initial agreement to stop the Iranian shelling of Kurdish villages within the region’s …
http://www.kurdishglobe.net/displayArticle.jsp?id=119E2E82C8561D03A47CE58116B1840E

JEWS
Family Security Matters » Publications » Shi’ite Iran’s Genocidal … of religious oppression against Persian Jews and other non-Muslims. …
http://www.familysecuritymatters.org/publications/id.656/pub_detail.asp

THE IRANIAN: Jews in Iran, Pooya Dayanim, Mar 12, 2003 … The Islamic Republic reminds Iranian Jews of their uncertain fate and …. Iranian Jews face severe discrimination and persecution in Iran. …
http://www.iranian.com/Opinion/2003/March/Jews

BALUCHIS
Pakistan/Iran: The Baluchi Minority’s ‘Forgotten Conflict’
October 25, 2007
By Abubakar Siddique
October 25, 2007 (RFE/RL) — The Baluchi minority in southwestern Pakistan and southeastern Iran is increasingly marginalized, discriminated against by the state, and suffers from limited access to the benefits of citizenship, according to political observers and human rights groups.
Although the 6 million-8 million ethnic Baluchis in both countries live in a strategic location atop untapped hydrocarbon and mineral deposits and possible trade routes, it looks unlikely that their grim conditions will improve soon.
A report released on October 22 by the International Crisis Group argues that only free and fair elections are likely to encourage Baluchi participation in Pakistani politics. The Brussels-based think tank predicts that in the absence of political reconciliation, violence will continue unabated between Pakistan’s military and Baluchi nationalist militants demanding political and economic autonomy.
“The Baluch people think their resources are being monopolized by the government, that their land and their resources are not their own, and that there is no freedom to express their opinions.” — I.A. Rehman, Human Rights Commission of Pakistan
Baluchi leaders claim to be fighting for autonomy and control over their people’s abundant natural resources, but Islamabad regards them as revolutionaries bankrolled by regional archrival India. Years of armed insurrection have killed hundreds of Baluchi militants, Pakistani troops, and civilians.
I.A. Rehman, the director of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, an independent group that monitors human rights abuses, says the fighting has displaced thousands of Baluchis in the insurgency-plagued districts of Dera Bugti and Kohlu. Rehman told RFE/RL’s Radio Free Afghanistan that the government’s strong-arm tactics to suppress the insurgency have created a troubling human rights situation.
“There is the question of the suppression of all dissent. The cases of the disappeared people are only the tip of the problem,” Rehman said. “The real issue in Baluchistan is that the Baluch people think their resources are being monopolized by the government, that their land and their resources are not their own, and that there is no freedom to express their opinions.”
Displaced Or Missing
The International Crisis Group calls the Baluchi plight a “forgotten conflict.” It maintains that the fighting has so far displaced 84,000 people, while thousands of Baluchi nationalist activists languish in jails and hundreds remain missing.
The Pakistani government meanwhile claims to be pouring billions of dollars into major infrastructure-development projects, including a new port on the Arabian sea coast at Gwadar, along with the construction of major roads, rail networks, dams, and new cantonments. Other ambitious projects are aimed at extracting gold, copper, oil, gas, and minerals in Baluchistan Province, which accounts for nearly half of Pakistan’s territory and is home to some 8 million people, about half of them ethnic Pashtuns.
But many Baluchis oppose such projects and regard them as unfair efforts to exploit their land. Mariana Baabar, an Islamabad-based journalist and political commentator, says the Baluchis are among the most impoverished groups in the country, and require assistance to meet basic needs as well as longer-term development efforts.
“They do not have clean drinking water. They are not being provided with [basic] health care or education. And they are even regarded as not being part of Pakistan,” Baabar said. The Pakistani government “is trying to build a port in Gawadar, but, again, non-Baluchis from Punjab and other regions are being taken there [to settle]. So that is why the people of Baluchistan are unhappy.”
Poverty, Discrimination
Across the border in neighboring Iran, Baluchis are enduring similar woes. There some 2 million Baluchis concentrated in Iran’s southeastern Sistan-Baluchistan Province, representing about 2 percent of the country’s total population.
Drewery Dyke, a Middle East researcher for human rights watchdog Amnesty International in London, told Radio Free Afghanistan that Iran’s Baluchi population is subject to economic and cultural discrimination. Sistan-Baluchistan is “certainly one of the poorest and most deprived provinces in the country. And it has suffered droughts and extreme weather conditions. And certainly — with respect to the situation of women and schooling for girls — there are shortcomings that the state really needs to address,” Dyke said.
In a September report that Dyke helped research, Amnesty International documented rights abuses by Iranian authorities and the armed Baluchi and hard-line Sunni group Jondallah (which has reportedly been renamed the Iranian Peoples’ Resistance Movement). Since 2005, Jondallah appears to have carried out lethal attacks on Iranian security forces, and taken and executed hostages. Iranian authorities have blamed Jondollah for other attacks that resulted in civilian casualties, but the group has denied responsibility.
Amnesty International has criticized the arrest of suspected Baluchi militants who might have been subjected to torture to produce forced confessions. The group has expressed concern over special judicial procedures put in place by Iranian authorities, and a steep rise in the number of Baluchis who have been targeted.
Dyke said the Iranian authorities “have established a special court…almost like a security court to deal with what is obviously a very severe situation — in some respects, an insurgency in the country. It appears to [have led] to a decline, an erosion of the safeguards, [of] the fair-trial standards and a massive rise in the implementation of the death penalty against the Baluchis.”
The plights of their respective Baluchi minorities are unlikely to improve in the short term. In the best-case scenario, human rights advocates in Pakistan maintain that the coming national elections in Pakistan — if they are sufficiently transparent — might boost Baluchi participation in mainstream politics. That, they say, could provide incentives that help defuse militancy…
http://www.rferl.org/content/article/1079022.html

Nov 25 , 2008

Appeal

Stop the execution of 5 Baloch innocent young men
Reza Hossein Borr
London- 25.11.08– After the demolition of Azim Abad mosque in Balochistan on 27 August 2008, several students and teachers were arrested for expressing their discontent about the demolition of the mosque. Five of them are now on trial on fabricated charges of having links with the People’s Resistance Movement of Iran, Jondollah. Everybody in Baluchistan knows quite well that these are simple teachers and students that have no any kind of links with any armed group or political organizations.
The Islamic Republic of Iran claimed that their trial has been open to the public and the parents of the victims were also present. That regime portrays this trial as if the innocent teachers and students were guilty of some criminal activities in which innocent people have died. This is a new farce of a new kind. The government destroyed the mosque and arrested several teachers and students. They are the victims. There is no any other victim. What a regime! What an Islamic Republic? What an Islamic Republic of Iran? What an Islam in which all sins are allowed! The regime demolishes a mosque, arrests many people for protesting against it and then they stage manage a dramatic trial and claim that there were some people who were victimized by those teachers and students that were arrested.
http://www.thebaluch.com/112508_pressRelease_b.php

Karim Abdian, Ph.D., executive director of the Ahwaz Human Rights Organization, USA , who represents the Ahwazi Arabs in Iran , deplored the continued violation of human rights of the smaller nationalities in Iran and mentioned the hanging of Baluch journalist and human rights campaigner Yaqub Mehrnihad.
http://www.thebaluch.com/081608_release.php

American Chronicle | Appeal to Save the Lives of 2 Baloch Teachers …For these reasons, the Baluchs are widely persecuted and undeservedly vilified in Iran. A few days ago, two Baluch religious leaders and teachers, …
http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/57991

Baluch human rights activists arrested, An Iranian Baluch journalist and civil rights campaigner, Yaghub Mehrnehad, aged 28, …. economic, cultural and ethnic oppression of the Baluch people. …
http://www.petertatchell.net/international/iranjournalisttobeexecuted.htm